Friday, May 31, 2019

The History of Stalingrad Essay -- Stalingrad War Battles European His

The History of StalingradStalingrad is the scene of the costliest and most stubborn battle in this contend. The battle fought there to its desperate finish may turn pop to be among the decisive battles in the long history of warIn the scale of its intensity, its destructiveness, and its horror, Stalingrad has no parallel. It engaged the full strength of the two biggest armies in atomic number 63 and could fit into no lesser framework than that of a life-and death conflict which encompasses the earthNew York Times, February 4, 1943 The battle fought between the Soviet Red Army and the national socialist Wehrmacht over the city of Stalin for four long months in the fall and winter of 1942-3 stands as not only the most important battle of the Eastern presence during orbit War II, but as the greatest battle ever fought. Germanys defeat at Stalingrad ended three years of almost perpetual victory and signaled the beginning of the end of the Third Reich. In this way, Stalingrads signif icance was projected beyond the two main combatants, extending to all corners of the world.This paper is not meant to be a military history of the battle I am not qualified to offer such an account. It is also not an examination of why Russia win (and Germany lost). The goal of this paper is to explain why this particular conflict, fought at this particular point in time, and in this particular place became the defining moment of World War II. During the late summer of 1942, Germanys position in the Soviet Union appeared to be dominant. The Russian winter offensive in front of capital of the Russian Federation had succeeded in relieving the pressure on the capital but had failed to make any substantial gains beyond a few miles of breathing space. The Germans had managed to stabilize the situation, inflicting severe casualties on the Russians before opening their own offensive in southern Russia in the spring and summer of 1942. This offensive, like the initial attack on the Soviet Union, caught the Russians (who anticipate a second assault on Moscow) completely off guard. Germanys success was immense, and by the end of July the Wehrmacht had reached the Caucasus Mountains and the Volga River, with the oil-rich cities of Astrakhan, Grozny, and Baku in its sights. The first fourteen months of the war had been a debacle of monumental proportions for the Russians. During this time, the Germans had occupied more than a... ... the regime began to make concrete plans to overthrow it. Stalingrad was the beginning of the end for the Third Reich. World War II was filled with turning points, including Midway, El Alamein, and Moscow. Stalingrad, however, was not simply a turning point. It was the decisive battle of the most violent and destructive war ever fought. It is a fitting testament to the importance of Stalingrad that General Chuikov, the tough-as-nails commander of the 62nd Army that defended the city, would later lead his men in the final battle of the Europe an war, the assault on Berlin.Works CitedBaldwin, Hanson. Battles Lost and Won. New York Smithmark Publishers, 1966.Craig, William. Enemy at the Gates. New York Readers Digest Press, 1973.Elting, Mary and Robert T. Weaver, Battles How They Are Won. Garden City Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1944.Overy, Richard. Russias War. New York Penguin Books, 1997.Roberts, Geoffrey. Victory at Stalingrad The Battle that Changed History. London Pearson Education, 2002.Stalingrad, Moscow Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1943.Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World At Arms. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

E-commerce and the New World Order :: Internet Online Communication Essays

E-commerce and the New World Order INTRODUCTION Imagine a town with a population of 500 people. Everyone knows from to each one one other in person, where gossip and rumors atomic number 18 the daily norms and where the community struggles to survive each day on basic physiological needs (water, food). Theres no form of entertainment, no technological presence, just a local pub down the street, where many people come to drink just to interact and pass the time. The only news that is important to them is the news within the community. Now imagine the same town, a few decades later, with a growing population. This town has unified technology into their daily lives. The town can now trade among other communities near by, while aware of the activities of the towns around them, of the country as a full-page and of the news that circulates around the globe. It is this economy which greater resembles the economy in which we now live in. This economy is known as the informa tion society, where traditional physical restrictions are now eliminated to the advantage of exploring other cultures and communities across space and time. This economy provides efficient forms of communication while enhancing the knowledge and ability of each individual in its society. In order to relate and comprehend this new economy, and to acknowledge its existence, we must first examine the changes that have taken place, and the benefits and disadvantages that are associated with it. It is by looking at each aspect that we can conclude that a new economy has formed and has impacted the ways we conduct our daily lives. ESSAYNWO THE NEW WORLD markImagine a community in the industrial age, where mass production of goods and operate are produced, where quality and originality are lost and where the creator/author loses causality to control those who uses his/her information. The only news and transactions that circulates and matter within the community are tho se, which are local. Now imagine the same community where technological vicissitude has taken over, where computers are the new form of communication, where news that happen from one area of the world greatly affects other areas of the world. Where a wide variety of goods and services are now offered throughout the world, and where transactions and investment occurs at the tip of your fingers in your very own home.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Great Gatsby :: essays papers

Great Gatsby 4When F. Scott Fitzgerald first published The Great Gatsby, it was namedUnder the Red, White, and Blue. However, after having revised the novel galore(postnominal) times with his many editors, publishers, and per word of honoral advisors,Fitzgerald eventually released the book under its contemporary title.Why did Fitzgerald make the change? Under the red white and bluereferred to the life of people in America, or under the American flag.His novel is focused on the corruption of the American dream, and thecorruption of those residing within. The great Gatsby referred to oneof the principle characters in the novel, Jay Gatsby. Why was Gatsby sogreat that the book was named after him? Jay Gatsby was portrayed byFitzgerald as the son of God, or of a God. Fitzgerald reminds us ofthis throughout the novel, and from beginning to end he fills the textwith hints as he alludes to Gatsbys divine spirit. The Great Gatsbywas a great man- Fitzgerald tells the reader that Gatsby was s o greathe could not have been a man- that he was a heavenly figure. Fitzgeraldwanted the reader to believe that the American dream had died, and tofurther ingrain his belief in our minds, he destroys religion andmorality notwithstanding now the final and most dismal reality Fitzgerald faces uswith is that no man is a great man- the only great man encountered inThe Great Gatsby is the son of God- who is superior to man, and cannotbe judged by the same rules. An author uses imagery to convey specificthoughts and emotions from his readers. Fitzgerald constantly remindsus that Gatsby is a heavenly figure by associating Gatsby with the slug. The moon is a heavenly body therefore, Gatsbys presence bringsout the heavens. The first time the narrator, nick, meets Gatsby, it isat one of Gatsbys gaudy parties, and the moon had risenhigher.(Fitzgerald p.51) just before Nick met Gatsby. When Nick leavesthe party, a wafer of a moon was shining over Gatsbys house.(p.60)After Myrtle had been ru n over by Daisy, Nick speaks to Gatsby outsideDaisys house, and Nick could think of nothing except the luminosityof his pink suit under the moon. The imagery in this location suggeststhat Gatsby is innocent of the crime he is implicated in, which is themurder of Myrtle. The moon shining down on Gatsby, making his suitradiate, suggests that heaven looks with favor upon Gatsby. Gatsby islinked with the heavens occurs when he name d having kissed Daisyfor the first time.

Cut by sylvia Plath Essay -- essays research papers

Cut Sylvia PlathPersonaIn terms of content the persona in Cut is Sylvia Plath herself. Plath was one of the first American women writers to refuse to conceal her true emotions. In articulating her aggression, hostility and despair in her art, she effectively challenged the traditional literary prioritization of female experience. Plath has experienced much melancholy and embossment in her life. ScenarioThe scenario of the poem starts off in a seemingly domestic scene, perhaps preparing for dinner and develops into this amazing association and blurring of the physical and emotional senses, where a expectant joy has been found in an accident. Plath dedicates Cut to her new au pair (nanny), Susan ONeill Roe as a welcome to the family gesture. It is most in all probability the au pairs thumb, which has been cut however Plath refers to it as her own thumb as a sign of empathy/psychosis. In the poem, Plath describes the feelings and sensations of deliberate self mutilation and the emoti onal release it brings. The press clipping of the thumb can be viewed in a Freudian manner in which the incident occurred accidentally on purpose a parapraxis, having the effect of grammatical construction up tension.ContextThe mise en scene in which the poem is taking place is in England, isolated away from all her family and friends, during the 1950s where Plath was the victim of a male-orientated sexist fiat and her poetry a choreography of female wounds. Values portrayed finished Cut are Plaths life of hardships from separation, divorce and as a unmarried mother and poet. Through the remarkable consistent images that all flow from her very ordinary accident it is evident that this poem showcases a history of bloodshed through war, death, injury and maiming in the Western world and Plaths family history StoryThe story of Cut is a rapid succession/conglomeration off sensations and images of vehemence and bloodshed throught history and its emotional relief. Plath chooses to use an ongoing metaphor of a battle between two armies. She is possibly one soldier who has lost much, opus fighting the depression battle. This poem demonstrates Plaths disconnection from humanity as for example she disassociates the thumb as being part of the body. The fact that she relates her cut to onions, with homework as a household duty displaying her discontentment with her role as a housewife and mot... ...rill- creates a colloquial level of language, where in this case an exclaiming mark could have been used. SoundsA variety of language devices are employed to create tone for the poem. Sounds such as assonance is used in the stemma a flap like a hat with an emphasis on t and taken off on a coupled with dental t and plosive p evoking and mirroring the on/off nature of a hat, in reference to the skin that has been cut on her thumb. Internal assonance and consonance emerge and disappear with unpredictability. This demonstrates signs of Plaths mental illness. Also there i s assonance in little pilgrim, the Indians axed your scalp where the chopping sounds evoke the movement.In conclusion, there is to a greater extent than one implication of the word alone cut hurt,injured,rejected,excludedthese are to mean physically injured, rejected or wounded by people, excluded by living on own and bleeding in all senses and self mutilation. In the poem Cut by Sylvia Plath there is more to the poem than moods and feelings through the use of context and technique. For instance images,sounds,tones,rhythm,rhyme and form which all add up to an effective poem with textual integrity.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Life in Brave New World and Life in America :: Brave New World

Life in Brave New World and Life in America         For more than half a century, science fiction writers have thrilled andchallenged readers with visions of the future day and future worlds.  These authorsoffered an insight into what they expected man, society, and life to be like atsome future time.         A society can achieve stability only when eachone is happy, and thebrave new world tries hard to ensure that every person is happy.  It does itsbest to overhaul any painful emotion, which means every deep feeling and high temperature.  It uses genetic engineering and conditioning to ensure that everyoneis happy with his or her work.  Sex is a native source of felicitousness.  The bravenew world basically teaches everyone to be promiscuous.  You are allowed to havesex with any partner you want, who wants you, and sooner or later every partnerwill want you.  Children are taught throug h hypnosis that everyone belongs toeveryone else.  In this Utopia, what we think of as true love for one personwould lead to a passion for that person and the establishment of family life,both of which would interfere with the community and its stability.  Nobody isallowed to become pregnant because nobody is born, everyone is a test-tubebaby.  Many females are born sterile.         The ideas and ways of obtaining happiness are not too much different inthe brave new world than in our lives here in the United States.  The only oddment is that these pleasures are looked at in different ways.  Sex is avery large part of our societys pleasure and everyone is allowed to have anypartner that he/she wants, unless this idea is not taught at a young age andeveryone in our society does not feel this way towards sex.  Our ideas andthoughts on topics of this nature are much more broad, and everyone is entitledto his/her own opinion.  Families are established in our culture, which arelooked upon as something very good for our society.  Women are allowed to becomepregnant as freely as they want and the government will even aid them in theprocess.  This is one difference that is totally different from the brave newworld.  Women were a serving of times not even allowed to have children much lesshave as many as they so desired.         Soma is a drug utilize by everyone in the brave new world almost everydayIt calms people and gets them high at the same time, but without hangovers ornasty font effects.  The rulers of the brave new world had put 2000

Life in Brave New World and Life in America :: Brave New World

Life in Brave New World and Life in America         For more than half a century, skill fiction writers have thrilled andchallenged readers with visions of the future and future worlds.  These authorsoffered an insight into what they expected man, caller, and life to be like atsome future time.         A society can achieve stability only when everyone is happy, and the endure new-sprung(prenominal) world tries hard to ensure that every person is happy.  It does itsbest to eliminate any annoying emotion, which means every deep feeling andpassion.  It uses genetic engineering and conditioning to ensure that everyoneis happy with his or her work.  Sex is a primary source of happiness.  The bravenew world basically teaches everyone to be promiscuous.  You are allowed to havesex with any partner you wishing, who wants you, and sooner or later every partner provide want you.  Children are tau ght through hypnosis that everyone belongs toeveryone else.  In this Utopia, what we think of as true love for one personwould lead to a passion for that person and the initiation of family life,both of which would interfere with the community and its stability.  Nobody isallowed to become pregnant because nobody is born, everyone is a test-tubebaby.  Many females are born sterile.         The ideas and ways of obtaining happiness are non too much different inthe brave new world than in our lives here in the United States.  The onlydifference is that these pleasures are looked at in different ways.  Sex is avery large part of our societys pleasure and everyone is allowed to have anypartner that he/she wants, but this idea is not taught at a young age andeveryone in our society does not feel this way towards sex.  Our ideas andthoughts on topics of this nature are much more broad, and everyone is entitleto his/her own opinion.   Families are established in our culture, which arelooked upon as something very good for our society.  Women are allowed to becomepregnant as freely as they want and the government will even aid them in theprocess.  This is one difference that is totally different from the brave newworld.  Women were a lot of times not even allowed to have children much lesshave as many as they so desired.         Soma is a drug used by everyone in the brave new world almost everydayIt calms people and gets them high at the same time, but without hangovers ornasty side effects.  The rulers of the brave new world had put 2000

Monday, May 27, 2019

Stop Smoking Right Now

Diamanta Stop Smoking Right Now Do you know every 10 seconds someone dies from sens related diseases? There are many people who have ingest habit nowadays, and the age of first time sensrs is getting lower in Taiwan. People start smoking for many different reasons, some think smoking lets them feel relaxed, some think smoking looks cool, and others may on the dot want to try. However, when people start smoking, it will be hard to stop be condition cigarette contains tobacco which makes them become addicted.These smokers enjoy smoking every day, but they come out to not know that smoking causes so many problems which not only concern themselves, but also other non-smokers. In my opinion, people should give up smoking right now because smoking affects their interpersonal relationship, does harm to valet de chambre health, and brings put-upon smoke. For one thing, smoking concerns smokers interpersonal relationship. When people are smoking, most non-smokers loathe the smell of cigarette. In fact, this irritant smell will cling to smokers for a long time, including their hair, body, and clothes.Moreover, smokers breath always reeks of cigarettes, and it is also hard to be removed. Actually, it is very rude and offensive to talk with others with the stale cigarette smoke. On the other hand, smokers teeth will become yellow if they smoke too much. Expect the smell of cigarettes feculent teeth also give others a bad impression. In short, smokers should try to be considerate to others feeling, especially when they are in public. Second, smoking influences on human health. Smoking can seriously damage human body, and it is considered to a health killer.Actually, the most serious problem is studies have confirmed that smoking causes various kinds of cancer, including cancers of nose, mouth, throat, and lung. The much cigarettes a person smoked individually day, the more risk of cancer increases. However, heart disease also relative to smoking. Heart disease is the leading cause of death today, and there are a large number of people who die from heart problems because they smoke heavily. Another bad effect of smoking is maturation of the skin. Smoking consumes Vitamin A in the skin and cause wrinkles, especially around the lips and the eyes.On the other hand, pregnant women also should not smoke. A pregnant woman who has smoking habit also influences on theunborn baby, and it may cause her baby born too early or with low birth weight. To sum up, smoking really causes a variety of bad effects on human body. Finally, smoking makes secondhand smoke. exploited smoke is also called environmental tobacco smoke. In fact, Secondhand smoke is the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke exhaled out by the smoker. When people stand near a smoker, they catch ones breath secondhand smoke. However, many people still do not realize the dangers of secondhand smoke.Actually, secondhand smoke also affects non-smokers, and it is very harmful to human body. Secondhand smoke has more than 50 chemicals that cause lung and breathing problems, including coughing, hard to breathe, moreover, it is possible that it causes lung cancer even people do not smoke. In addition, according to the researches, secondhand smoke increases the risk of heart disease by 15 to 20 percent. In Taiwan, secondhand smoke cause about 20,000 of the deaths of heart disease each year. As a result, everyone should keep away from smokers because secondhand smoke is dangerous.In conclusion, smoking is against social politeness, causes damage to both smokers and non-smokers health, and makes terrible secondhand smoke. Smoking really does not bring any benefit, so people should not smoke or buy cigarettes anymore. I think smokers must realize that not just their health will be affected everyone around them is also influenced by their bad habit. For staying in good physical condition, smokers should consider to take steps towards quitting sm oking from now. Staying smoke free let people keep healthy, get more energy, and live a better life.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Education Through Experience Essay

Education Through Experience How does one get a line? Is acquirement part of the modern day media induced generation? Do we learn by flipping through television channels and reading magazine articles? Or does learning run deeper than that? In todays world we would like to believe that by bit on the Discovery channel or actually finishing a Harry Potter novel we have learned it all. We Justify our media obsession by saying how much we are learning when we stay glued to the tube or nose deep in the latest fashion magazine.It is quite loving to say that we do collect many facts and details from reading books, magazines, and from watching television. But after all is said and done, what have you committed to memory? Do you find yourself more interested in the facts or the dramatic plot of the movie you were watching? Television is not a sin. We all watch it from beat to time. But when people rush home so that they dont Jeopardize their TV time, it seems as if it really has become a problem.How can you pass judgment your children to efficiently learn when they are lopped down in front of the TV or are obsessing over what they are reading in their magazines? Education is not take a craped by becoming obsessed with the media. It is gained through experience. By seeing and doing things, the people of the world can come to know and understand what education is all about. not about how hot people are, or about how much money you can make from winning a game show, but about how the air things of this world truly work.By being open to new experiences, and new opinions we are able to step outside of our comfort zones and ee things through other perspective. As Plato rightly states in The Allegory of the Cave, an educated person is said to be someone that strives to learn more, and that is open to a variety of beliefs and notions from other people. some other important factor in gaining education through experience is being able to communicate what you have learned to others. Communication is huge in learning new material. We communicate with others in the world every day yet, we rarely truly communicate. A conversation should create something in common by make genuine connection, not by being a short or one-sided opinion. By creating something in common and sharing educational experiences, the conversation allows scuttlebutt from all sides no matter how differnt the viewpoint and creates something new (Bohm). Today we run frantically to Google or ask. com when we find we have a question about the right smart things work. Sure these search engines are helpful, but they prove our generation to be lazy and solely dependent on the technology. What if there were no computers?What if there were no flat-screen televisions to tell us everything? What if, God forbid, we actually had to have a conversation with someone? Communication is the divine way of comparing and contrasting the information we gain from our experiences. You dont like or agree with what someone says? Great That is the beauty of communication. We dont have to believe whatever we see on the television screen or in the pages of a newspaper or magazine. Experience puts us past that. An equally important matter to take into friendliness when exploring education

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Regulation and deregulation of business logistics

It is important to distinguish these two types of state intervention, since the policy of deregulation aimed only at the economic aspects of the industry, while measures on dealings guard duty and protection of the public interest only increase. Lets see these questions in detail. Regulation of business life is one of the oldest forms of government regulation. Federal and state governments strike actively used economic regulation to ensure the reliability of the delight corpse and to create conditions for economic development.More than 100 years the state intervention in the economy is aimed at to make bewitch services equally available to all users without exception in the U. S. Measures to strengthen competition between private transport companies argon the basis of the regulatory policies. The government invested money in creating and improving infrastructure in building roads, airports, channels and ports. The state supported and regulated system of private commercial carrie rs for using these communication and actually providing transport services.Deregulation began in the sass, and in 1980, when the basic laws adopted deregulation, the situation has changed radically. In the sass and sass were tightened security measure measures in the transport and protection of the public interest with weakening economic regulation of transport. In 1966, it was created by the Ministry of Transport (Department of conveyancing, DOT), and from the very beginning in the meaning of his attention were transportation and materials handling hazardous substances, limiting working cadence of drivers and reliable vehicles.In 1974, the Law on Transport Security (Transportation Safety Act). Were taken emergence several laws on transport, significantly influenced the practice of logistics in the next 20 years. Movement for the protection of the environment caused further strengthen attention to transportation safety and liability for environmental harm. Regulation of entry i nto the industry. Such regulation shall be subject to the rules of entry into the industry (market) and exit, as well as a harken of markets that are allowed to serve a particular carrier.Restrictions aimed at reducing competition in major markets and maintaining an adequate level of logistic service to small. Transport rates. Transportation rates are the second object of economic regulation, in particular, their establishment, modification, tariff subsidies and actual tariff rates. There are efferent types of transport tariffs. There are legal procedures to change (increase or decrease) in transportation tariffs. The most industries, firms are free to change prices, and limits their only competitive pressures.Prior to deregulation, carriers had to prove the need for changes in tariffs to the rush on interstate commerce. Carriers had to demonstrate that their be have increased (or decreased) for justifying such a need to increase (or decrease) the price of the services. Temporary change of tariffs in answer to rising fuel prices in the form of allowances allowed he tariff rate. Carriers are getting the right to change rates within a certain lead without any Justification annual (typically 7-15%) after deregulation. Tariff subsidies are the practice of support (subsidies) one carrier routes through higher tariffs on others.That is considered that the high costs are associated with servicing small markets, subsidized by revenues from services to large markets where the level of costs are relatively lower. Strictly speaking, 42 states regulate transport on its territory, and only eight do not. There was have never been regulating the activities f public or contract carriers in Delaware and New Jersey. Nevertheless, in 1994 Congress passed and President signed a law abolishing the right of states to control the rates, routes, and composition of services provided by the carriers.While states retained the right to regulate the size and burthen of vehicles, as well as transportation routes of hazardous materials and the financial liability of carriers. In addition, Carriers retained the right of participation in the tariff committee. Costs of intrastate regulation and the difficulties in its abolition are quite significant. Postal impasses aspired to avoid regulation. But in response to these efforts of companies Federal Express and UPS power only round states have strengthened their positions. For example, several states attempt to subordinate Federal Express truck traffic on its territory in 1991. But in 1992 the U.S. ultimate Court ruled that California has no right to regulate road transport operations airlines that have a federal license. Other cities and states have act to limit transport at a certain time of day or the transportation of hazardous materials (Donald, 2008). All these things considered, we include that creating the conditions for free market competition, although from time to time there have been calls for stabili ty to return to a more extensive regulation primarily it concerns air transport and road transport with half(prenominal) transit normally is the main aim of the legal state regulation in the transport industry.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Drug Abuse as a Social Problem Essay

do drugss de blisteringr been around for thousands of geezerhood. A drug is any chemical that produces a therapeutic or non-therapeutic effect in the body (Drugs and immature Substance jest at 2000.) Most drugs were first used for medicinal purposes, such as marijuana. Active substances were not extracted into drugs until the 19th century. Newly discovered substances like morphine, laudanum, and cocaine were completely unregulated and prescribed freely by physicians for a wide variety of ailments. Wounded veterans returned home with their kits of morphine and hypodermic needles (History of Drug Abuse, n.d.) The use of amerciable drugs is increasing, especially among young teens. The conflict theory of kind conundrums states that, society is marked by conflict due to inequalities in class, race, ethnicity, gender, age, and other divisions that produce conflicting ideas (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 7.)Solutions to crop social problems include building stronger movements in confl icted groups and then by chance engaging in negotiations to r apiece accommodations. The functionalist approach to social problems, sop ups society as a gigantic organism whose parts be interrelated (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 7.) Functionalists believe that institutions produce patterns of deviance and they must be addressed through come up-calculated social reformations. Solutions include engaging in research and interventions to improve these social institutions. There are slightly ideas between the conflict and functionalist perspectives on how to remedy the wide-spread social problem of drug horror.Substance tread tail simply be defined as, a pattern of harmful use of any substances for mood-altering purposes (What Is Substance Abuse, n.d.) As culture and customs change, so do the major categories of illegal drugs. The most commonly yelld drugs today, in addition to alcohol, are marijuana, cocaine, opiates (including heroin and morphine), hallucinogens, amphetamines, and barbitu localises. virtually young tidy sum are again experimenting with psychotropic drugs like LSD and Ecstasy (Kornblum and Julian, 2004.) Teens use drugs for many reasons including curiosity, because it feels good, to reduce stress, to feel grown up or to fit in with their peers (Drugs and Teen Substance Abuse 2000.)Many passel view drug abuse and addiction as strictly a social problem. Drugabuse affects society in many ways. In the workplace it is costly in terms of lost work time and inefficiency. More than half the deaths in the coupled States involve alcohol, in well-nigh form, such as in homicides and suicides. Drug-related crimes can disrupt the neighborhoods due to violence among drug dealers, threats to residents, and the crimes of the addicts themselves. Also, a great majority of homeless people cause individually a drug or alcohol problem (NIDA InfoFacts Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction, 2005.)Humans have used drugs of one sort or virtually other for thousands of years. For the past last decades, crime and drugs have been called by some, the most weighty problems facing this country. The full economic cost of drug abuse in the United States is estimated at approximately $70 billion annually. In so, America is actually losing money because of the use of drugs. Due to years of stu haps, it is proven that drug abuse be the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (known as OECD) countries much than $120 billion per year in drug enforcement, prosecutions, prisons, prevention programmers, treatment and health care costs, and pecuniary losses incurred from drug-related crimes. This is very bad for the community as a whole because it also affects many people. In a present study, it was hypothesized that the likelihood of recent challenging drug use would be exalteder among arrest. They have a slight disadvantage because of low income, widespread poverty, high employment rate, limited high naturalise graduation, numerous female-headed household, high population density, and large African-American population.The sociological Conflict Theory holds that in that location are higher numbers of chronic drug abusers implant in depress social classes, disorganized neighborhoods, and relatively politically powerless places. The disappearance of decent paying manual work since the early 1970s leaves unskilled, noncivilized individuals vulnerable to poverty. This is when selling drugs, an alternative to enduring grinding poverty, has been a common enough response as the income gap had widened. This has increased the violence and crime rate of society.The Functionalist Perspective in sociology states that everyone in the society holds a position and in this position their status has a set ofroles or certain behaviors that are inevitable to perform the tasks at hand (Kornblum and Julian, 2004.) The roles consist of prevails at the medical institutions, lawyers at international firms or just a blu e lift up worker at any type of factory. For the most part, each status role is involved in an institution of some kind and is demand for the economy and society to function as a whole. The Functionalist Perspective looks at the way major social instructions like the family, military, the health-care system, and the police and courts actually operate (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 6.) This fundamentally means that for these institutions that are needed to fulfill these roles and duties for the economy, the roles and behaviors of employees need to evolve as a whole so that the institution can function (Kornblum and Julian, 2004.) For example, a nurse needs to know certain things nigh her job like what medicine can treat a certain sickness or when and where CPR is needed for a victim or if moving that victim could paralyze that person.Sociologists say that, when all members of the group perform their roles correctly, the group is said to be functioning well (Kornblum and Julian, 2004 , 6.) When society as a whole is said to be functioning as one this means that there is general agreement about how roles are to be performed and the expectations are reinforced by the societys basic values (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 6.) The main question that is asked is, why do we have social problems if each institution has roles in the society? (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 6) Many say that the main reason that functionalists believe we as a society have social problems is because our society is ever so changing and the society is having to adapt to the changes and when the society fails than that is when social problems exist (Kornblum and Julian 2004.) When a society undergoes changes, for example going from pre-industrial where most of the economy was based on agricultural to the industrial era where many poverty stricken farmers became factory workers but of those workers do not adapt, it is said that such a change can lead to crime, such as drug abuse. The functionalist so ciologist says that, all societies produce their own unique form of crime and how they respond to this change (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 7.)In the past years we have been fighting a war against drugs. In the mid 1980s, the United States adopted a series of aggressive law enforcementstrategies and sad justice policies pitch towards reducing and punishing drug abuse. Changes in the federal laws required that all sentenced federal offenders were to serve 87 percent of their court-imposed sentence. Many drug offenders are subjected to a mandatory sentence based upon the type and quantity of the drugs that were involved in their arrest. According to the Uniform Crime Report, 1,532,000 drugs arrests were made in 1999, up from 580,900 in 1980. Some people think the increase in drug arrests is a good sign, but others think it denies drug users what they really need, which is treatment. No one seems to argue about the serious problem with drugs in the United States.According to a 2002 Nat ional Survey on drug use, 19.5 million Americans ages 12 and older were current outlawed drug users. 1 in every 13 adults is an alcoholic. The functionalist view is that society has norms and guidelines on alcohol and drug use. Social norms identify the appropriate use of drugs and alcohol. prescription drug drugs are very functional in society because they can alleviate pain, reduce fever, and can curb infections. Even alcohol is accepted in modestness and can be consumed with meals and or celebrations. Sometimes there even health benefits, such as red wine being good for the heart. Society provides norms regarding the excessive use of drugs. Drug abuse can also occur when society is unable to provide guidelines for our behavior. Under certain situations that can be very stressful, people consume more alcohol and drugs. If people lack norms to control their behavior they are likely to pursue self-destructive behaviors like alcohol and drug abuse.Drug abuse is one of the biggest disciplines in social problems. Many of the people who prepare drugs face a lot of problems. There are many similarities and differences between the functionalist view and conflict view pertaining to drug abuse theory. From a functionalist perspective, drug abuse affects almost everyone in our society, directly or indirectly. Seventy million adult Americans have used illegal drugs at some time in their lives. The out come from this shows that 450,000 Americans die from smoking each year. When some of the people abuse drugs, they break down addicted to it and then they tend to abuse it more. Addiction is uncontrollable and lots of people face the terrible repercussions for example, losing their job, family, friends, health and their wealth. Getting addicted to drugs gets worse because the data shows that, 97% of drug addicts never see treatment (NIDA InfoFacts Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction, 2005.) Research has revealed how drug abuse causes both short-term and long-term ch anges in brain function. These long-term brain changes are visible to scientists who can see what is going on in the brain with new scanning techniques.These changes make it just about impossible for someone addicted to drugs to stop using them on their own they need to get treatment. On the conflict side, it shows that, 95 percent of untreated addicts die of their addiction (NIDA InfoFacts Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction, 2005.) There is a separation of classes and some of the people in society think that making people submit using drugs is their own business they dont have any concern for it. Some of the healthcare programs that have developed for the people who want to surrender drugs show that, for every dollar spent on addiction treatment, seven dollars are saved in costs to society in healthcare and criminal activity (NIDA InfoFacts Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction, 2005.) Institutions have also been created to help people who want to quit. The National Institu tion of Drug Abuse (NIDA) stressed that researchers have shown that there are no effective treatments that can help people stop their addiction and prevent them from using it again. Basically, the conflict perspective views drug abuse as a problem of the classes, distinctly separated due to economic standing.There are many roles that are played in the functionalist prospective, which has lead to some of the results on the conflict side of drug abuse. For example, the government plays a big role in why their countrys population is in high or low percentage of using drug. Some countries like the United States strictly control the use of drugs by restricting access more and big(a) strict punishment, unlike Afghanistan, Columbia or some of the other countries. Most likely the government in these countries does not work hard on this issue because they are making profit off it or some of the big politicians are involved in it. In Afghanistan the government said that no national what we try to do to stop it, but it cannot be cured because drugs grow in almost 99% of the Afghanistan. Countries like these can only try to lower drug production and abuse to a certain point, but not as low as the United States has reduces the trafficking and use of drugs.Parents play themost important role of all. In some ways, they are responsible for why their child is on drugs, or they make it clear that drug use is unacceptable and harmful. For example, some of the parents do not care about their children and always have a negative response toward their children. This becomes stressful for the children and they dinero abusing drugs, thinking that it relives them but instead it makes the problems worse. They start abusing more drugs and end up in a very deep problem. On the other hand, some do mot even bother to take the drugs because their parents make it clear to them that drug use is never all right. In a recent study it shows that drug use is high among people who live in high d egree of structural disadvantage, people who are less educated, low income, widespread poverty, high unemployment, high population density, low stability, and large African American population, which is why for some of the people using drugs is not a bad choice to them but it is almost like their medicine to remedy their social status.Some of the people think that drinking alcohol is not taking a drug. It can be a drug if some is addicted to it. info shows that, fifty percent of the traffic deaths are alcohol related. Teenagers have the highest percentage of drinking age in the USA because teenagers tend to drink more than the people who are over the age of thirty. This is all because teenagers are more aggressive, more imitating, more macho, and have some parents or close friends who are willing to defile alcohol for them. Many teenagers believe that alcohol and drug use is safe and are unaware of the consequences to excessive use. The average 18 years old has seen 100,000 boob tube commercials encouraging them him of her to drink. According to the NIDA, that is why 90% of high school seniors have tried alcohol, 53% gets drunk at least once a month, 43% smoke marijuana, and about one third are smoking cigarettes.From the conflict perspective, a teenager who loses everything early in life or never had very much to begin with, tends to drink or abuse more alcohol simply because they just think that it is helping them to forget everything. That leads to more problems and these children end up committing crimes and possibly could end up in jail. According to the conflict theory, people outside of this social class and situation are unwilling to help integrate these individuals okay into society. Some people dont realizethat just because of their addiction, it can take them to the point where no one can help them. Today there are about 190 million drug users all around the world, all of whom need help battling their addiction. The way to help them, however, v aries between the conflict and functionalist perspectives.In conclusion, drug abuse presents a prevalent issue in todays society. The conflict theory of sociology states that society functions so that each individual musician and its group struggles to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change (such as changes in politics and revolutions.) This theory attempts to refute the functionalist perspective of social problems, which considers that societies function so that each individual and group plays a specific role, like organs in the body. A conflict theorist would suggest solving the problem of drug abuse by accommodating the needs of people in the classes suffering from drug use and educating them on the effects of drugs. The functionalist theorist, on the other hand, would suggest becoming more actively involved by reforming institutions as a whole and helping to redefine the abusers roles in society. Drug abuse is a very prevalent problem in the Unit ed States today and sociological theories provide for many different solutions.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Of Mice and Men Essay

In Steinbecks novel Of Mice and Men, the characters be trenchantly described as Lonely Dreamers. Since there was a stock crash in 1929 e really(prenominal)one got economically depressed. Lennie and George are two men who go to work on a ranch. They set upon many complications. Crooks one of the ranchers wanted to be equal to the others. edulcorate is a poor old swamper who is depressed of friends and Curleys wife wants to be a assume star but cant, so they all suffer and therefore inhalation and are only(a).George Milton is a lonely dreamer who has a friend named Lennie down in the m let onh who is very immature and George is an outcast between the ranchers. The company of Lennie makes George feel lonely and make a picture in his mind or so a dream-come-true ranch. George thinks that they (Lennie and George) are the loneliest ranchers because they have no family so George tells LennieGuys like us that work on ranches are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. T hey dont belong no place.(Steinbeck 31-32) present loneliness is expressed through George, talking almost the unexisting family. George has no quality conversations with someone of his own age, because Lennie is very immature. George desires a family and someone to talk to who understands.George Milton dream a lot. He always keeps on complaining that he had to look after Lennie but if he didnt he could go an make 50 bucks by working in another job. He could thusly use the money and go buy something he likes, or go to a whore house. George was definitely dreaming because he wasnt going to leave Lennie alone and please his own will, he tells Lennie what he feelsAn when the end of the month came I would take my litre bucks and go to house(Steinbeck 145 2000 Ed)George was not allowed to leave Lennie, runaway and get money, it is impossible because George promised Aunt Clara and he would feel guilty to leave Lennie who doesnt issue how to handle things. George was in a very ha rd position.Lennie didnt have much of a family except George who scolds Lennie all the time. If George had a fight with Lennie then Lennie would feel very lonely and have no one to talk to. When Lennie became friendly with George then he would be very happy because he would know that he has George and George has Lennie to look after apiece other, so he expresses his feelings towards GeorgeBecause..because I got you to look after me and, you got me to look after you, and thats why.(Steinbeck 32 2000 Ed)Since them both had each other then Lennie didnt feel lonely and so had someone to talk to. IT was Georges job to look after Lennie so they had to stick together.Lennie teentsy has dreams like us. George thinks of having a dream garden and keeps on telling Lennie about it because Lennie wants to tend the rabbits so he keeps on wanting to hear about the garden. He also wants to hear about what all is going to be in the garden so Lennie is imagining all of this because he wont get the dream garden so he asks againGo on George Tell about what were gonna have in the garden and about the rabbits in the cages and about the rain in the overwinter and the stove.(Steinbecks 32 2000 Ed)Lennie really likes animals and soft things so he really wants to pet the rabbits and experience the rain in the winter while he is in his imaginary garden.Crooks is a very lonely man because he doesnt have many friends and is a victim on racial prejudice. Since Crooks has no one with him he always sits up at night getting bored and not doing anything just thinking ok companionship, equality, how lonely he is, what and outcast he is and how racist others are towards him. Since he is an afro- American man and the others are white. He then expresses his feelingsA guy sets alone out here at night, maybe readin books or thinkin or stuff like that.(Steinbeck 105 2000 ed)Since Crooks is so lonely he is really sad because he finds it very hard to make friends and act the same as the others. Croo ks is now having a rough time.Crooks is dreaming of perceiveing hundreds of men walking o the ranches because there arent many people on the ranches anyway because no one likes the ranches. Since Crooks is always dreaming he imagines many things, so he dreams that he seesI see hundreds of men bye on the road an on the ranches with their bindles on their back.(Steinbeck 106 2000 Ed)I think Crooks has an imaginative mind because he is severly lonely because of his skin colour and locomote and what others think of him.Candy is one of the ranchers who is lonely too and like George and Lennie doesnt have any relatives with him. Even Candy doesnt have many friends. Candy is also old so he thinks that one that he will die and leave his belongings with Lennie and George since Candy doesnt have anyone else. Candy tells Lennie and GeorgeId make a will an leave my office to you guyz in case I kick off, cause I aint got no relatives nor nothing.(Steinbeck 71 2000ed)Candy really wants to go a way since he doesnt have anybody with him. So he always thinks how unlucky he is and how deprived he is of his family.Since Candy doesnt have much company in the bunk house he hears Lennie and George talking about their imaginative ranch which Candy finds very nice and would like to live on a ranch like they want to. So Candy is prepared to do something in the ranch and share some property so he adds in sayingSpose I went in with you guys. Thas three hundred am fifty bucksId put in. I aint much good, but I could tend the chickens.(Steinbeck 87 2000 Ed)Candy was so upset about his life so he really dreams of doing things but cant because it is too difficult for him, but would like to do something with others.Curleys wife is in a really bad shape since she has a horrible husband and no one likes her because of the way she acts and dresses, for e.g. she flirts with the ranchers, wears bright red lipstick and nail pull down and so everyone wants to keep their distance from her. She onl y has a poor old dog to give her company since her husband is so mean to her so she complains wherefore cant I talk to you? I never get to talk to nobody. I get awful lonely.(Steinbeck 122 2000ed)She is really upset with her life and is miserably lonely. She is one of the rejects, because of who she is. She has a bad attitude and dresses up really badly, also the way she talks is very annoying.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Rapping and Moral Values

Moral values and graciousness, in the past, were prominent in most teenagers. Majority of the youths then learnt respect, courtesy, consideration, decency, propriety, honesty and righteousness from a tender age, and had enough leave alone power to hold to these values. However, these moral values and self-discipline are slowly diminishing over the years, as most of the younger extension are gradually handle these ethics. The listed values have slowly faded away, as they mean little to these adolescents, as moral values and self-discipline are on the verge of disappearing.This overleap of self-discipline and self-control is becoming to a greater extent and more apparent over time. However, this situation is not to be taken lightly as the younger generation is the future of our nation. Even the simplest of morals desire, respect, care and consideration are slowly fading away over the years. A simple display of respect the likes of offering the elderly a seat on the bus is being replaced by scenarios of students competing with them for seats. Instead of showing the principles of care and Should Moral Values Be Taught in SchoolsThe Renaissance or rebirth of the Greco- Roman era, a period in time in which all aspects of the humanities flourished. It was also during this time period in which the majority of the humanists deemed the greatest were produced. From the Lorenzo de Medici to Raphael, these greats were extremely well rounded and had great moral values. As a foundation for their success and moral values, they benefited greatly from the writings and didactics of their Greek and Roman predecessors as well as the Bible. This is present in Raphaels renaissance painting the School of Athens.He pays homage to those who came before him by incorporating Greek philosophers such as Plato, and even some of his Renaissance colleagues like Michelangelo into the painting. Now as we come back to the time in which we live, where can we word that we learned our moral values? We as Americans have lost sight of many of our moral values. A huge debate has been raised as to whether moral values should be taught in school. Most people would argue that the teaching of moral values be taught in the home by the parents and should not be the responsibility of others.I personally feel that moral values should be taught in school. By teaching moral values in school, there will be much success gained by doing so. Also, I feel that as a way to increase moral values, students should have to read the literary workings of the Greek philosophers and Renaissance artists as well. Reading which is very important will definitely help us become better persons because it will open our minds to more than just what we have in front of us. Many of the humanists during the renaissance benefited from reading ancient roman literature and I feel that we can do the same. inaugural of all, I feel that moral values should be taught in schools because we as Americans have lost sight of many of our moral values. For example, we have lost the family structure. We no longer gather at the.. The Effects of pelvic arch decamp/ knocking Music on The Younger Generation Today The dynamic era of hip hop emerged in the 1970s through the streets of Bronx, New York City. Now twenty five years old and still counting, the world of hip hop is at a new level. Lil Wayne, Kanye West, Rick Ross, 2 Chainz, and Plies are just some of todays biggest icons in the world of hip hop.Having record hitting tracks that start off the charts, these rappers are definitely the image the younger generation looks up to. Though, having these amazing tracks, these same iconic figures are said to be the cause of our teenagers drumhead down the road of destruction. The effects of these lyrics on the teenage society are said to provoke violence, foul language, and enhanced sexual behavior. To begin, the effect of hip hop or rap music on the younger generation today has encouraged youth to b ecome more violent and aggressive.Ever since the rise of rap music, teens have been turning to music to help solve their problems. However, this music cannot be helpful but very destructive. Encouraging raging acts of violence, these lyrics influence and damage the minds of children, teens and young adults. For instance, rapper Plies states, Dont tell me shit about what them niggas said, Them niggas just raping, Fuck niggas be bluffing, Killers make shit happen, in his track called Naan Nigga. The breakdown of these lyrics It does not matter what another(prenominal) individual states about one, if a person is real one must ake violent actions to prove your point in life. The effect of teens listening to music like this is shown in and out of school. More and more students are being arrested and taken to juvenile detention centers due to fighting or bringing weapons to school. For example, my junior year, a student brought a knife to school to threaten another student. During their v erbal altercation in the courtyard, the student carrying the knife kept repeating, Nigga Im real, Ill slit yo throat from ear to ear.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

The Community Service Trust Act

With the reaping of the National and partnership Service Trust Act of 1993, there is change magnitude focusing on integrating student community serve well, volunteerism and operate skill into the curriculum. Service training arse be a key to unlock our nations potential. Promising that field of study return volition strengthen the cords that bind us together as a people, President Clinton signed legislation creating AmeriCorps.The new program, scheduled for slowly 1994, will in its first year rovide 20,000 young people with 7,425 in annual wages plus health benefits and tike c atomic number 18 benefits if needed and $4,725 in fosterageal benefits in exchange for a full year of grassroots community advantage work. In a Mac Arthur Foundation publication on youth work, Judy Karasik reported that America is experiencing an explosion of youth idealism, activism, and commitment to engaged citizenship . In record numbers, Americans are r all(prenominal)ing out. It is no lon ger a national of noblesse oblige, in which the rich reach down to help the poor.Todays volunteers are people of e precise socioeconomic level helping each other. There are still wealthy philanthropists who serve those less privileged, but the women who would have served in previous generations are now working for buy off at demanding projects. They are a good deal too exhausted to add community service to their other responsibilities From Miami to Seattle, the United States of the 1990s is ripe for answers to the seemingly insurmountable well-disposed problems plaguing large cities and small towns. slice we have almost become indifferent to the familiar litany of socital illscrime, drugs,teen pregnancy, homelessness, juvenile delinquencythe response to many of our community problems has been a new student activism burgeoning on our college campuses. Programs crease from student organizations assisting the US Marines with their annual Toys for Tots program to full-time interns hips in social service agencies A week after Hurricane Andrew struck southern Dade County, Florida, Broward Community College students had pick outFlorida City and mobilized to help survivors rebuild their community.Teams of students, along with faculty and staff, traveled to Florida City on weekends to assist in the cleanup. Back in Broward County, some of these same students instruct at-risk youngsters, tutor luxuriously school students with ad hoc culture disabilities, act as student ambassadors to the community, and serve as peer educators providing vital HIV/AIDS measure information to their classmates Interior design students in Texas redesigned the Alzheimer care unit of a local hospital while classmates renovated a homeless shelter.In Colorado, architectural students redesigned a town hall. At Miami-Dade Community College, Florida, students received faculty member credit for producing a put-on performed by students, faculty and residents of a homeless center. I learn ed much from them than I have all my life said David, a student, referring to the homeless people he worked with in the play. Student community service and service accomplishment are powerful learning features for students, providing a way to effect change and verbalize our nations pressing social problems.Students who volunteer receive more than unsloped the mirth of helping those in need they learn responsibility, build character, solve problems, and gain a better understanding of their Community colleges have a unique fortune to be on the cutting edge of this new paradigm. Speaking at a Florida Council of Student Affairs meeting, Chris Gilmore, director of the Florida Governors Commission on National and Community Service,urged deans and vice presidents to remember that one-third of the community college mission is service.Citing a study in which 100 percent of the students reported that their service experience was more cardinal than their academic studies, Gilmore noted , There is no better way to learn leadership than by leading, and no better way to learn the value of service than by serving. The term community service often conjures up visions of forced restitution, of convicted criminals sentenced to pay off their debts to society for infractions ranging from speeding tickets to felonies.For our students, the accepted definition of community service is unpaid work that everyone can do to improve the quality of life of those being served, of those serving, and ultimately of the community as a whole. The primary goal lies in attacking civic apathy while participating in activities that serve community necessarily. Out-of-classroom learning programs have gained in popularity since emerging in the mid mid-sixties when President Kennedy urged the nation to ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.He called upon the nations young to serve society in the military, community service, the international Peace Corp s, or domestic VISTA programs for two-years of national service. Since that time many colleges and universities have been actively integrating student volunteerism, internships, and community service into their programs. Thousands of college students are currently working in literacy programs, day care centers, soup kitchens, and facilities for the elderly. Very often the difference between someone failing and making it is just one person who cares about them.Student volunteers can change the course of history by touching the lives of many while gaining valuable life experience. What sets service learning apart from other types of non-traditional education programs, according to Neil Merrell, director of the Center for Public Policy and Service at Mesa Community College, is that service learning is the blending of academic study and community service. At Mesa, says Merrell, our goal is to encourage students to become lifelong, active participants in the community. Service can be in tegrated into a class in several ways, an extra credit option as a substitute for a requirement, such as a paper,exam, or run across or an integral part of the course, if the class is on a related topic, like social problems. Service learning is the integration of community service into an unionised setting where the servers withal reflect on the meaning of their service. By combining service with a reflective educational framework, the benefits far exceed those of service or learning separately. Reflection can take place in groups or individually, in a written or oral format, by using journals or essays.In service learning the volunteer work is related to the course. The process of reflection is an essential part of integrating the service experience into course work. by structured reflection activities, individuals develop an appreciation for the connection between their community service activities and the underlying issues of the social problem being addressed. Trish Joyce, a Broward Community College incline professor, offered a service option to students in her Introduction to the Short Story course.After some reluctance, David Manko, a computer science major, volunteered to read stories to children at the campus child care center. Joyce points to the following excerpts of Davids reflective journal as a shining example of what I told him no, that it only looked that way because the ants are so small. The children were all inquire about the crystals the ants were so arouse in so I decided to show them, using a grain of sand. I told the kids that to an ant this looks like a giant rock and they are strong enough to carry them. They understood and wanted to look at the pictures in the book againIf I were to import a childrens story those are some of the characteristics I would include Each experience I have with the children, I feel I have shown them a little of the enormous and very diverse world of literature. . A students college career is a tim e of training, not only for a career, but for life. Service learning programs are designed to make social service an integral part of students lives during and after college. The training gained through service could provide new career opportunities, or simply an experience to benefit everyone involved.Research by Arthur Levine of Harvard University shows an estimated 64 percent of college and university students participate in public service activities in addition to their course work. gear up Cooper, a Broward Community College alumnus, heads the student-initiated Volunteer Action Center at Florida International University (FIU). Cooper, who began the FIU program two years ago while a student, believes that service learning works because it is ground on one simple principle you dont learn the basics by memorizing the basics, but by doing projects in which you utilize the basics.Surely if education is supposed to prepare the next generation, we should be teaching active citizensh ip rather than rote memorization. The real value, though, lies in enhanced learning. Research by Judith Boss on her University of Rhode Island ethics classes showed that a service learning component improves learning . Solving community problems is a bonus. The nation is looking toward its colleges to stem the torrent of violence and civic apathy by instilling such core values as honesty and respect for life.The Wingspread Group, a blue ribbon panel on higher education, developed a 42-point college checklist to improve educational offerings. The panel urged administrators to ensure that next years entering students will graduate as individuals of character, more sensitive to the needs of community, more competent to contribute to society, and more civil in habits of thought, speech and action. Service learning experiences build new relationships between students and instructors, between the community and the college or university, and between the people being served, and the student s, benefiting all involved.Properly prepared students extend service delivery for overburdened community agencies, allowing closer contact with clientele, and providing extra staff engender. The college gains an improved public relations image. More than any other educational institution, the community colleges very mission is enmeshed with a commitment to improve the communities that environment its campuses. The existence of both mandatory and voluntary community service programs is nothing new for many cloistered liberal arts institutions and public universities.Even high schools in many states are adding service hours to their graduation requirements. However, while service learning is a nice enhancement to these educational offerings, service is integral to the very essence of the community college mission. Karen Bojar, an English Professor at the Community College of Philadelphia, includes service learning activities in her literature classes. She states Community college students have deep roots in the community thus, community service sets the stage for lifelong commitment.She views formal volunteering through a structured experience as a career skill and teaches her students how to integrated their volunteer work into their resumes. In the most successful service learning programs, colleges and universities work together in a partnership with community-based organizations and civic leaders in identifying needs, planning and establishing the service projects. Community awareness is essential to the success of any service learning program.For years, colleges and universities have sought creative methods of providing on-the-job training to augment classroom learning. The value of such a goal is demonstrated by student participation in extracurricular and student life activities, where self regard is strengthened and the roles of commitment and responsibility are reinforced through employment. Potential employers have always valued on-the-job exper ience, often more so than academic credentials. Employers are placing a high value on community service experience as well.An increasing number of corporations are establishing corporate foundations and community swelled programs. Many encourage employee volunteerism through matching programs, match employee monetary gifts, and lend their executives to assist non-profit organizations. It is always desirable for students to become more focused as they explore career choices. Student employment provides non-threatening opportunities to experience job options without a full-time commitment. Working for the parking area good, however, adds a sense of urgency as the needs for increased levels of civic responsibility become more and more critical.Since 1954 there has been a 15 percent increase in the number of college graduates entering the field of social work. We may soon be able to witness a marked increase as more college students have a chance to learn through service to others. . In addition to the value of the experience itself, most of the student participants at Broward Community College receive service scholarships to reduce their need to borrow to pay for college. Although many of the participants reluctantly admit they signed up initially for the money, they stayed involved even when the scholarships were exhausted.Wen asked, they said they feel they got more out of the experience than the liquidator of their services. The following steps will enable administrators to create a successful service learning program Begin with a small core of interested faculty, preferably individuals who are activists themselves and already participate in community service endeavors. Form an advisory committee with membership including representatives from faculty, staff, students, corporations, and local community agencies.This committee can provide useful feedback, encourage faculty to buy into service learning for their classes, and win needed support from students a nd the community. Include students and faculty in the planning. Students must be involved in every aspect of developing the service learning program, from planning through implementation, though the institution should serve as administrative support to coordinate the program. Establish an office to provide service support and coordinate the program with faculty, develop agency contacts, place students, monitor service hours, and maintain co-curricular copy data.Find a lightning rod with clout and provide incentives to reward faculty involvement. Elizabeth Ann Gilver, director of the Haverford College, Pennsylvania, Career and Community Service Program, recommends reassuring teachers that their students course work will not suffer and using concessions to defuse opposition from the faculty In an effort to document the community involvement of students, student development transcripts are fit popular as addenda to academic transcripts.They provide students with a documented record of their out-of-classroom experiences. These records of co-curricular activities can be presented to potential employers to indicate additional job skills acquired while playacting community work. As public service gains popularity and jobs become more scarce, volunteering for community service will be viewed as yet another way for job applicants to enhance their resumes. Maintaining records of service also provide an excellent method to recognize student involvement.Several institutions use graduation and other ceremonies to present awards or plaques to students based on number of hours of service performed. A brightly colored cord or tassel on students mortarboards can also be used to honor service achievements. At some institutions, a single instructor or group of faculty members have developed ways to creatively integrate service experiences into specific courses with no institutional support. Many four-year institutions have programs that are initiated and run by students, eithe r through student clubs and organizations or by individual students.However, because of the abbreviated programs and piddling tenure of typical community college students, community colleges wishing to sustain a viable service learning program must make the commitment of a full-time faculty or staff member to coordinate their program. There are numerous departments that can assume overall responsibility for a service learning programStudent affairs, academic affairs, cooperative education, student employment, monetary aid, student activities, student life, placement, or career services offices can all play a role.There is no one answer that will satisfy the individual needs of all institutions, each with very different organizational structures. The common denominator in successful service learning programs is enthusiastic program personnel coupled with a strong institutional commitment, as long term sustain ability is largely dependent on a commitment from top administration. Whe n searching for funding, dont leave any stone unturned. Grants are available to cover inauguration costs from such sources as the Corporation on National and Community Service, the U. S.Department of Education Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE), state agencies, etc. virtually institutions have earmarked student activity fees to cover program operating costs. Others have successfully negotiated institutional budgetary support. Work closely with your counterparts in resource development, financial aid, and grants, to seek out operating funds. If your institution provides staff and program development support or mini-grants to pilot new programs, apply for start-up funds. Appeal to local private and public foundations, corporations and individual donors.Seek out program funds or scholarships for the students. Donors are often more willing to provide tuition assistance for students who also give something back to their community. By focusing on the needs of ot hers, students gain a sense of compassion and social awareness that develops when people help each other. A national survey conducted by Allan Luks revealed that people who do regular volunteer work report that good feelings keep them generally healthier and happier In his book, The Healing Power of Doing Good, he suggests that working through an organization makes volunteers more likely to continue regular volunteer activities.By providing college students with an organized means to experience service learning, colleges can foster a lifelong commitment to altruism. There are those who see the worlds ills as insurmountable and make no effort to address them. There are others who believe that each of us can make a difference through individual acts of civic responsibility.Toward that end, every community college in the nation should provide its students with a variety of volunteer, community service, public service and service learning experiences to prepare them for a role of active citizenship and participation in improving the quality of life in their communities. Think what a legacy we could leave our children and their children if we could imbue each of the nearly 9 million students that annually pass through our doors each year with such a notion. The ripple effect would certainly go a long way toward making our world a better place.

Monday, May 20, 2019

A 24-hour society Essay

In a 24-hour society, when ar deal supposed to get a good darknesss rest?The automobile industry, the airline industry, the medical industry, the manufacturing industry, the safety industry altogether of these and others be industries which cannot precisely close at 5 oclock in the aft(prenominal)noon. People must work or so the clock to provide for the health, safety, and entertainment of others. Unfortunately, scientists are becoming more c oncerned just about the effects of the darkness shift on American workers. While the nighttimetime shift cannot be obliterated from working socio-economic class America, those that do work on this schedule and the companies that employ them must be aware of the physical and psychological factors that come into play for the employee as well as the risks for the comp each itself.Twenty to thirty million Americans project jobs that require them to work nontraditional schedules, which includes working during nighttime hours when othe r, traditional workers are a pile (Weiss, 1989). This shift has been more or less since society became industrialized because the need for 24 hour services in prisons and hospitals necessitated a night person. However, these night workers get down a much more hard time than day workers in a diverseness of sweeps. Most of these problems can be traced back to the lack of nap and light that these workers receive while they are awake.See more My Writing Process EssayScientists have been studying the bodys circadian rhythms in order to solve the puzzle of sleep deprivation and its effects. Circadian rhythms are the bodys reaction to the alternation of light and dark and cues such as the timing of meals and sleep. This 24hour light-dark circadian cycle is derived from the Latin circa (about) and dies (day). Since prehistoric times, circadian rhythms have regulated the pattern of working by day and dormancy by night (Learning to live with light-dark cycles, 1996). This genetic func tioning is the basis for how individuals are genetically programmed to sleep and to wake. jibe to scientists, the light from around a person travels through his heart to the hypothalamus in the judgment where the supposed biological clock is located. Then the impulse travels to the pineal gland at which point the occupation of melatonin (the hormone that allows people to sleep) is dramatically reduced. The pass over and fall of melatonin in the body affects body temperature, perceived energy and enzyme and hormone production (Learning to live with light-dark cycles, 1996). Basically, most(prenominal) of the bodys functions are related to this simple perception of light and dark. unity researcher, Dr. Foster, studying this phenomenon, found cells in the human eye that do nothing but detect intellectual sunlight and tell the brain to reset the sleep cycle accordingly (Pepper, 2004). He found that these eye cells do not financial aid produce vision but are only set to do to da ylight. It is important to note that even on a cloudy day, the daylight produced is 500 to 1,000 times brighter than any type of artificial light used in factories or offices. These artificial lights do not ride these cells in the eye. Pepper (2004) cites Foster in saying You need light of a long season and high brightness to shift the biological clock. This explains why business travelers crossing time zones eventually adapt, but night-shift workers neer do. They get a dose of natural light on their way to and from work, too strong for a factorys dim lamps to counter. These special eye cells feed directly to the brain and tell the brains biological clock which is really about 20,000 cells with the scientific name of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, whether the person is receiving daylight or not. If he is, the cells send out the word to stay away if he is not, the cells send out sleep signals (Pepper, 2004).In addition to the sleepy or energized feeling that these cells can regula te, the human body is also moved(p) in other ways. Scientific research has proved that people who work the third shift have a greater incidence of heart disease than those who work the first shift. They explain it by revelation that the less exposure to daylight a person has, the more the cholesterol is produced in the bloodstream, which will choke down the persons arteries (Fischette, 1992).Blood pressure and pulse rates are slowest during the night, but rise dramatically upon wakening. Physicians see more heart attack and stroke patients in the morning hours. Studies also are finding that circadian rhythms affect diabetes and certain cancers. For people with asthma, coughing and respiratory arrest are most common between midnight and 600 a.m. (Pepper, 2004). Similarly, Glaxo, Inc. a research organization in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, notes other physiological effects that fall under control of these circadian rhythmsWhen parents remark that their children at tend to grow overnight, they whitethorn not be far from the truth. During the hours of sleep, the human growth hormone is produced in greater abundance and is not inhibited from doing its job by activity hormones, like adrenaline, which are released during the day.Jet lag. When travel to a different time zone, jet lag afflicts travelers and disrupts sleep and daytime functioning. The bodys circadian rhythm becomes out of sync with the rhythm of light and dark, taking up to several days to re-align itself to the modern routine.Shift workers sleep disorder. Re-adjusting the bodys clock to different schedules on night or rotating shifts plays massacre with the natural circadian rhythm that responds to light and dark, making ones temperature lowest at night and highest during the day. Although shift workers make up one-fourth of the nations workforce, they are twice as prob commensurate as nine-to-five individuals to report sleep disruption.Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). For som e people, the winter blues arent just a mood, but a chronic disorder that leads to depression, drowsiness, and carbohydrate cravings during the winter months. People vile from SAD report longer periods of sleep, indicating that this disorder may be a circadian disturbance imputable to the shorter days of winter.Lung function. The bodys production of cortisol steroids, which control lung inflammation, drops at night and peaks in the morning. This mover air flow in and out of the lungs is best at 400 p.m., often giving athletes a leg up, compared with other times of the day. Air flow drops to its lowest point at 400 a.m., explaining why people with asthma often have nocturnal problems. (Learning to live with light-dark cycles, 1996).All of these negative affects will be exacerbated for those who must work during the dark, sleeping hours. Other problems can also arise from a lack of sleep out-of-pocket to working the third shift. A range of personality and behavioral problems may ar ise due attitudes related to shift work. These attitudes correlate to sleep habits and self-assessed feelings of vigor (Bohle & Tilley, 1998). Even if third shift workers are able to stay alert on shift, they may not be able to sleep during the day which exposes them to all kinds of additional problems due to sleep deprivation. Studies show that one nights loss of sleep results in a 30 percent drop in cognitive performance, rising to 60 percent after two nights (Bohle & Tilley, 1998). This means that the ability to think and make decisions quickly, as may be required by the majority of third shift workers police officers, air traffic controllers and medical personnel may be seriously diminished if they cannot sleep well during the day. Of course, as previously mentioned, the amount of daylight makes this very difficult (Bohle & Tilley, 1998). The attitudes toward the night shift can also affect relationships and performance. wickedness shift was most frequently characterized as be ing tiring, having drowsy moments, being bad for family life and not starting too early in a study reported by Bohle & Tilley, 1998). Stickgold et al, 1999 reports also that night owls have poky reaction times, slower motor responses and slower levels of linguistic and associated processing. These could be very costly for some people. Sadly, the vast majority of industrial virgules occur in the overnight hours when some workers may doze or suffer from lowered cognitive functioning. Such was the case with the accident at Three Mile Island, which began at 4 am. And the accident at Chernobyl, at 123 am ( the early hours when night-shift workers are prone to doze the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island started at 4 a.m., Chernobyl at 123 a.m. (Bohle & Tilley, 1998). We are intercommunicate 20 percent of our work force, including pilots and surgeons, to operate when theyre massively impaired, says Dr. Russell Foster, a molecular neuroscientist at capital of the United Kingdoms Imper ial College (Bohle & Tilley, 1998). Indeed, over 50% of shift workers admitted to falling asleep at least once while on the job (Weiss, 1989). . Scientists are working on some medications and false lighting systems to help with the physiological and psychological problems associated with third shift work. Until then, workers and their companys should take steps to prevent accidents and illnesses which may result.ReferencesBohle, P & Tilley, AJ. (1998). Early experience of shif twork Influences on attitudes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 71, 61-79.Fischette, M. (1992). Working the heart-disease shift. Omni14 (11)Pepper, T. (2004). Night Shift. Newsweek (Atlantic Edition) 144 (16).Stickgold, R., Scott, L., Rittenhouse, C., & Hobson, J.A. (1999). Sleep-induced changes in associative memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11(2)Weiss, R. (1989). Safety gets short shrift on long night shift. Science News 135 (3)

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Ethnic Notions Essay

Ethnic Notions is a documentary directed by Marlon Riggs. The title itself explains what the movie is about-impressions of race. Throughout the documentary, Riggs presents the history of stereotypes and extracts how they still exist. In directlys society we have become so accustomed with stereotypes that they are considered normal. The movie Ethnic Notations introduces the enigma of stereotypes by explaining their origin and history, giving standards, and showing how they still exist today, so that we are no all-night fooled and unaware of stereotyping and racism. During the early and mid 1900s calamitous concourse were depicted on television and media as ignorant, ugly, violent and inferior to white people. These negative, degrading and horrible images of black people over time determine peoples views and thoughts about black people and this was how stereotypes were created. Media used caricatures which are exaggerated representations of people to add racist views across to white and black American people.One example of a caricature is The Sambo. The Sambo was a caricature created to depict the black male as cosmos lazy, child like ignorant and like-free making the black male seem more(prenominal) like a child than a male. Another example of a racist caricature is pickaninnies which are black children. Pickaninnies were depicted as ugly kids with rough befogged hair, big eyes, dark black skin, big mouths and bright red lips. Pickaninnies often resembled animals in children cartoons and were viewed as savage by white people. One of the most popular caricatures of the 1900s is the mammie caricature. The Mammie was an older black woman who took care of the white mans family. Mammies were shoed as loving mother figures who were fat black and unattractive. Mammies were created to show that some blacks were happy as slaves and loved black people.These stereotypes were disturbing, degrading and in most cases poor representations of black people. It sadd ens me how whites could think so low of black people or any other human being at all. Sadly stereotypes still exist today in television, media and society. One stereotype I timber definitely still exist today ids the Sambo stereotype although there are great black actors that do dramatic roles most black men in the media are still shown as being offhanded and immature.However not all stereotypes today are exactly the same as the caricatures from the 20th light speed but a new modern version. For example instead of black women being depicted as unattractive mammies on television, they are now ghetto loud and un-lady like. Sometimes I even find myself playacting out a stereotype, like being loud or cursing in public. After ceremony Ethnic Notions I feel like stereotypes are too deeply rooted in Americas polish to ever be completely gone. Although this conclusion is unfortunate I do believe that we could make people believe in stereotypes less and less through media, by depictin g blacks in a more positive light.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

A Comparison between Romeo and Juliet, and Much Ado About Nothing

Comparisons argon bang-up amongst many of Shakespeares deforms. legion(predicate) comparisons terminate be made in lies, fights, and conflict between Romeo and Juliet, which is a tragedy, and Much Ado About Nothing, which is a comedy. After comparing them both they show these in tout ensemble elements. First, characters in both plays include villains, lovers, and friends. In both pieces the topic of lies comes up many times. Many characters display this. The first act of dishonesty happened when Romeo and Benvolio tried to deceive the Capulets by attending their feast, uninvited.As a result, Romeo met Juliet, and instantly fell in love, which was the scramning of the play. When he met Juliet, Romeo said, Did my heart love till straight? Forswear it, sight For I neer saw true beauty till this shadow (1. 5. 52-53). Romeo is already in love, when he has only just met this woman. This is the main cause of the entire tragedy. The most pernicious act of lying was in Much Ado about Nothing when Borachio and Don John close in young Hero. But you are more intemperate in your blood/Than Venus, or those pamperd animals (4. 1. 53-54).Claudio has just accused Hero of being unworthy due to a framed situation.. This entirely done for(p) their wedding. Consequences are also shown throughout both to prove the trouble of love. In both plays love is the join that holds them together, in spite of many fights the two face. For instance, the entire tale of Romeo and Juliet is based upon a feud. The Montagues and Capulets despise one another. The fight continues to dwell on the families refuse to forgive and forget. From ancient grudge break apart to new mutiny,?where civil blood makes civil hands unclean (1. 1. 3).This stubborn mindset prevents young Juliet and Romeo from humankind love. In Much Ado About Nothing, the main plot also contains an angry perspective. Beatrice and Benedick are constantly bickering throughout the story. Both characters are witty and quick t o start an argument. Your foolish response can often be expressed as Signor Mountanto (2. 2. 4-5). This is just an example of Beatrices underbred attitude, which is often displayed by Benedick as well. As there fighting continues, a love begins to grow. Possibly, the ingrained feelings they both had caused the continual disagreements.Lastly, the conflict of both plays proved the problems love may cause. Because of the rivalry the Montagues and Capulets maintained, Romeo and Juliet were prohibited from being seen in public as a couple. This however did not prevent the two from being together. With loves light wings did I oerperch these walls/For stony limits cannot hold love out, (2. 2. 66-67). Romeo says his feelings, and says it is hopeless to keep him away from her. The secrecy between the two began and soon ended in problem. In William Shakespeares other work, Much Ado about Nothing there are also many secrets.The characters work together to show Benedick and Beatrice they ha ve feelings for one another. Dote on Signor Benedick, whom she hath in all outward behaviors seemed ever to abhor (2. 3. 81-82). Both people were fooled into discovering love with each other. In conclusion we can say they are both the same piece of literature, however with dramatic diversities. As you read you begin to realize this even more so. Each characters and there feelings relate to another, and allows for a rather complicated, interesting plot.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Human Observation

spry surrounds are conveniences but can impinge on the privacy of some other peck. Generally every(prenominal) place of common interaction regulates that people should switch of their peregrine phones. However it is observed that this code of transport is constantly violated. (Ralph, 2002). Repeated violations of this prime principle of energetic phone etiquette have led to its inclusion age and again in all dictums on the subject. (Briody, 2005). People generally tend to avoid switching mop up busy phones in, no jail cell phone thinks zone due to anxiety or fear of losing run into with the support group. II. Theory.Despite accepting the necessity of switching false vigorous phones in public places, people do not comply with the same resulting in avoidable irritation. This violation of modern etiquette is an increasing trend. (Morgan, 2001). Constant connectivity provided by a utilitarian communication device creates unprecedented addiction on mobile phone in users , the absence of which leads to anxiety. Thus people tend to avoid switching discharge mobile phones in public places. III. Hypothesis. Students entering the depository program depository library on the college campus will not switch of their mobile phones on launch as required by the library code of conduct.The scope of the study is restricted to schoolchilds entering the Library and not to college professors or other staff. Library Code of Conduct. Library code of conduct requires mobile phones to be switched off to pr level offt disturbing fellow school-age childs. Adopting the silent, meeting or vibrator mode on the phone does not assure as switching off the mobile phone as the user can receive an property of a look to and would be tempted to converse on the phone leading to disturbance to other library users. IV.Procedure or methodology. The investigator placed himself in the main hall of the library during the week end on Saturday and sunshine during the library worki ng hours from 1000 hours to 1400 hours on twain days. An admirer was placed in the certify reading room on the first floor during the same sentence to record findings. They could visually substantiate a student on entrance and thus note whether he had put off his mobile phone or not. They could also hear ring tone of mobile phone in their individual areas.The investigator also arranged to obtain mobile phone numbers of all students based on their library records for this investigation against an integrity certificate that this information would not be used for any other purpose. The investigators noted the name of the student who was not seen switching off his mobile phone on entry in the library and having tallied his phone number from library records awaited for a ring tone on the subjects mobile phone.After passage of one hour, the investigator(s) rang up the mobile phone number of the student carrying the phone without switching off and who had not received a call to confi rm that he was then carrying his phone and had not switched it off. A tally sheet was used to record details of students who visited the library during the period, students who had switched off the mobile phone on entry, those who had not switched off the phone and received a call, those who were called by the investigators and responded, those called by the investigators and who did not respond.The gender and landmark record of students was also maintained. V. Results. 52 Students used the library on Saturday and 48 students used the library on sunlight from 1000 hours to 1400 hours on each day. The results of students observed on Saturday indicated that 13 students switched off their mobile phones on entering the library, 34 students give eared the calls including 28 students calls not initiated by the investigators and 6 students calls initiated by the investigators. 5 students did not attend any calls in the library and presumably did not carry mobile phones.(Baseline Inform ation Observation, 2006). The result of students observed on Sunday indicated that 11 students switched off their mobile phones on entering the library, 33 students attended the calls including 24 students calls not initiated by the investigators and 9 students calls initiated by the investigators. Only 4 students did not attend any calls in the library. The gender pattern of 13 students who had switched off their mobile phones on Saturday indicated that 9 were female person and 4 were male. While of the 11 students on Sunday, 8 were female and 3 were male.The gender pattern of 34 students who attended calls on Saturday indicated that 22 were female and 12 were male. While of the 33 students who attended calls on Sunday 19 were female and 14 were male. The status pattern of the 13 students who had switched off their mobile phones on Saturday indicated that 9 were IInd term or higher and 4 were first term students. The term pattern of students who had switched off their mobile phone s on Sunday indicated that 8 were IInd terminus or higher and 3 were first term students.The terminus pattern of the 34 students who attended calls on Saturday indicated that 21 were first term students and the departure were IInd Term or higher. The Term pattern of students who attended calls on Sunday indicated that 15 were first term students opus remainder were IInd Term or higher. VI. Discussion The results of students who had switched off telephones analyzed from gender pattern indicate that on Saturday 69 percent and on Sunday 72 percent were female. While the gender pattern of those aid calls on Saturday indicated that 65 % were female and 35 % male and on Sunday 58 % were female and 42 % male.The term pattern of students who had switched off mobile phones indicated that only 30 percent were first term students and the balance were IInd Term or higher on both days. While those who attended calls indicated that 61 % were first term student and the remainder were IInd Term or higher. A suss out of the results has proved the hypothesis that students entering the library on the college campus will not switch of their mobile phones on entry as required by the library code of conduct. The results clearly indicate that a majority of students did not switch off their mobile phones on entering the library.This percentage was 75 % on Saturday and 77 % on Sunday. Of those who had not switched off their mobile phones in the library, 87 % attended to a call in the library violating norms on Saturday and 89 % on Sunday. The review of the gender pattern and the term pattern of students indicates that the tendency amongst females to switch off mobile phones was higher than males while first term students were prone not to switch off their sets on entering library. On the other hand amongst those who attended to calls in the library, a majority were female and first term students.This supports the premise that there is a possible connect between the level of anxi ety and tendency not to switch mobile phones on entering a no calls zone for fear of losing contact with the support group even for a limited period of time thereby missing important information or casualty in their lives. The first term and female students are considered more vulnerable amongst the student community. The results attained could not be discussed directly with the participants to further seek their underlying assumptions and reasons for not switching off mobile phones and attending to calls in the library.This would have added greater credibility to the research but due to constraints could not be make so. Behavior Change VII. State the Problem. Observation results support the theory that due to high levels of anxiety people generally do not switch of their mobile phones on entering no call zones. The dependency syndrome created by the mobile phone thus needs to be altered. (Harrison, 2000). VIII. Theory. Mobile phones reduce anxiety and hence people tend to avoid switching them off even while inside a no call zone. Communicating with ones peer group is an essential feature of anxiety.Mobile phones enable us to remain connected with our support group at all times which indicates that in case people remain soused to their in group, there would be reason to believe that they will comply with instructions on cell phone etiquette. IX. Hypothesis. Students entering the college library will switch of their mobile phones in case they come to the library with their, in group. The, in group comprises of those students who provide primary support in college. X. Procedure or Methodology The focus group was the first term students of the college.Library attendance was planned in groups for the first term. This was done with the care of the college administration on deuce days a Saturday and Sunday from 1000 to 1400 hours. The cooperation of the college administration was forthcoming condition the pay offs of better mobile phone discipline in the colle ge library. The first term students were selected keeping in view their greater likelihood to use mobile phones when staying away from their support group. The investigator along with the assistant retained a record as indicated in IV above.XI. Results. Six small first term groups attended the library on Saturday and five groups on Sunday. Each group comprised of three to four students, thereby total sample in a day varied from 15 to 20 students. The groups were comprised evenly of both the genders and gender comparison has not been undertaken. Of the six groups on whom entropy was gathered on Saturday, all students in four groups had switched off their mobile phones on entering the library. Two students one each from the other two groups did not switch off their mobile phones.Both the students attended to calls which were external and not from the investigators. Of the five groups on whom data was collected on Sunday, all students in four groups switched off their mobile phones on entering the library. atomic number 53 student from the fifth group did not switch off his mobile phone. The student attended to the call from an external source. XII. Discussion The overwhelmingly positive response of the student groups indicates that when these students did not feel anxiety to choke with their peers on telephone, their adherence to the rules was much better.There were only three students who violated the code. Each of these had received an external call. This indicates likelihood of their expecting calls other than from their, in group and thus leading them to carry their mobile phones. Thus an effective link of reduction of anxiety through availability of mobile phones has been clearly established, while at the same time there is a clear correlation of a high degree of dependence on mobile phones in people which needs to be overcome with more organize corrective interventions.The evolution of such interventions could form a further subject of research as the problem of mobile phone call interruptions is a perpetual one. While technology has attempted to resolve the same through measures such as silent mode, behavioral interventions also need consideration which can be a subject of structured research. Reference 1. Morgan, John. (2001). Debretts New Guide to Etiquette and Modern Manners. New York Thomas Dunne. 2. Harrison, Linda (2000). The dos and donts of mobile phone etiquette. Retrieved on 02 January 2007 from http//www.theregister. co. uk/2000/06/01/the_dos_and_donts/. 3. Ralph, Louise. (2002). Look whos talking mobile phone etiquette. Retrieved on 02 January 2007 from http//www. econnect. com. au/pdf/quicktips/mobile. pdf. 4. Briody, Dan. (2005). The Ten Commandments of cell phone etiquette. Retrieved on 02 January 2007 from http//www. infoworld. com/articles/op/xml/00/05/26/000526opwireless. html. 5. Baseline Information Observation. (2006). Observations recorded during experiment. 6. Behavior Change. (2006). Observations recorde d during experiment.