Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Probability Distributions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Probability Distributions - Assignment Example Burglary topped the list of the most committed crime with 44%. On satisfaction, the criminal justice ranked first with 5.4 points while sentencing closed the list with 5.0 points. Correctional facilities play an integral role in criminal justice system. These facilities key responsibility is the incapacitation of a convicted person to deter recurrence of crime. They do so through the execution of the punishment given to a convicted offender by the court. However, they also provide other services such as rehabilitation and skill training. In US, the facilities fall under state or federal government although, private prisons also exists. The Federal Bureau of Prisons manages all the federal prisons while the Correction Departments in various states runs the state prisons. An offender gets an admission to prison after sentencing by a judge in state or federal courts. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) 2011, there were about 1.5 million prisoners in both state and federal prisons. Of this population, 40% were above 40 years old. The drug related offenders accounted for close to half the population of inmates in federal courts. Besides, the person s aged between 20 to 44 years committed most crimes accounting for 78% of the prisons’ population. In the same report prepared by BJS, approximately 92% of the prisoners are males. On crimes, apart from drugs, robbery, murder, assault, and burglary are the most common crimes in US. Although, the BJS 2011 statistics showed that the population of US prisoners declined by 0.9%, the incarceration rates outnumbers countries such as Canada and United Kingdom. Therefore, the conclusion is that the criminal justice system has weaknesses that need address from stakeholders. One of the main challenges faced by the system is the disproportionate number of African American and Hispanics in US prisons. While they are the minorities, they make up about 70% of the prisoners. This disparity elicits a perception that

Monday, October 28, 2019

Participant Observation and Grand Theory Essay Example for Free

Participant Observation and Grand Theory Essay Bronislaw Malinowski, with his ground-breaking field work of the Trobriand Islander community in the beginning of the 20th century still today counts as a pioneer, if not the founder of the British Social Anthropology. In his famous book Argonauts of the Western Pacific. An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagos of Melanesian New Guinea that was first published in 1922 he develops an elaborate methodological framework for ethnographical research, also known as ‘participant observation’. This method will highly influence the anthropological way of approaching its field of study and hence its theoretical landscape from then on. Looking at Malinowski’s description of the clan system of the Trobriand community, his descriptive and specifying style of formulation becomes apparent: â€Å"Each of the four clans has its own name: Malasi, Lukuba, Lukwasisiga, Lukulabuta. (†¦) There are special combinations of the clan names with formative roots, to descrive men and women and the mixed plurality belonging to the same clan: Tomalasi – a Malasi man; Immalasi – a Malasi women; Memalasi – the Malasi people (†¦). Near the village of Laba’I, on the northern shore of the main island, there is a spot called Obukula, which is marked by a coral outcrop. Obukula is, in fact, a ‘hole’ (dubwadebula), or ‘house’ (bwala); that is to say, one of the points from which the first ancestors of the linage emerged. † (Malinowski 1929: 496 f. , italics in original) This very nuanced and case specific example of the material gained from his methodological approach gives rise to the question if Malinowski’s heritage of participant observation has forever distanced Anthropology from bringing forward grand theories? To be able to consider and discuss this question, it is important to first define what Malinowski circumscribed when he laid out his dogma for ethnographical research by the term participant observation. Secondly, a closer inspection of the dictum ‘grand theory’ is indispensable for our purpose and will be clarified in the second section of this essay. Subsequently, we will look at these two concepts and their relationship to one another in section three in order to approach the question whether Anthropology can be viewed as a science able to produce grand theories. I. Participant observation In the foreword to Argonauts of the Western Pacific Malinowski states that he has â€Å"lived in that [Trobriand Island] archipelago for about two years (†¦), during which time [he] naturally acquired a thorough knowledge of the language. [He] did [his] work entirely alone, living for the greater part of the time right in the village. † (1966: xvi). This statement already contains the essence of participant observation in fieldwork. The hallmark of this methodological way of collecting data is the immersion of the researcher into her or his field of study over a long period of time and the personal part taking in the interactions of the people in the community studied. When Malinowski defined this new approach of ‘first-hand’ observation he broke with the, at that time prevailing tradition of ‘armchair’ ethnography. In this prior approach, ethnographers compiled data gained from historical sources to deduce theories about certain aspects of a usually ‘native’ community (Osterhoudt 2010). One of the main contributions of Malinowski’s new method to anthropological theory was that by participating and observing behaviour in the sample community he found out that a discrepancy between actual behaviour and narrative statements exists. â€Å"The smoothness and uniformity, which the mere verbal statement suggest as the only shape of human conduct, disappears with a better knowledge of cultural reality. † (Malinowski 1979: 83). This discovery in itself already composes a point of criticism towards the preceding ethnographical ‘arm-chair’ approach to data collection and evaluation. Even though participant observation is based on a seemingly broad and intuitive research design, it would, however, be incorrect to assume that this approach would be free of any directive principles on how to collect relevant data. Therefore, Malinowski describes how first, the researcher must â€Å"possess real scientific aims† (Malinowski 1966: 6) and be familiar with the theoretical background of anthropology. Further, the researcher should live in the field among the natives all by herself/ himself, and lastly the researcher has to stick to special and strict scientific methods, such as drawing â€Å"tables of kinship terms, genealogies, maps, plans and diagrams† (idib. 1966: 10) to collect, prepare and record her/his data. The previous example of the clan system provides a sense of the detailed and case specific information that is obtained by the application of participant observation. Besides the kind of the data collected, it should also be looked at the area of research and Malinowski’s suggestion of the subject to be studied. He proposes that the â€Å"field worker observes human beings acting within an environmental setting, natural and artificial; influenced by it, and in turn transforming it in co-operation with each other. † (Malinowski 1939: 940). Thus, he focuses on the individual as a starting point and its relation to, and mutual dependence on a social group. The inquiries of a researcher will hence have to include a â€Å"specific study of the individual, as well as the group within which he has to live and work. † (idib. 1939: 950). The collective life within that group or society is widely to be seen in certain types of activities, ‘institutions’ such as the â€Å"economy, education, or social control and political system in place† (idib. 1939: 954). These institutions, as he points out, can be seen as a fruitful base to investigate the individual’s motives and values and they will provide â€Å"insight into the process by which the individual is conditioned or culturally formed and of the group mechanisms of this process. † (idib. 1939: 954). II. Grand Theory In the following, the dictum ‘grand theory’ will be specified and by doing so distinguished into two different tendencies of understanding the concept. Wiarda (2010) defines a grand theory in his book Grand Theories and Ideologies in the Social Sciences as â€Å"those large, overarching explanations of social and political behavior—liberalism, Marxism, socialism, positivism, corporatism, political culture, institutionalism, psychoanalysis, rational choice theory, environmentalism (Jared Diamond), sociobiology, and now chemistry and genetics—that give coherence to the social sciences, help us to organize and think about change and modernization, and give us models to understand complex behavior. † (Wiarda 2010: x) This definition of grand theory as an ‘overarching explanation’ is in line with Anthony Good’s (1996) understanding of a ‘generalizing science’ that produces â€Å"universal, descriptive and predictive laws† (idib. 1996: 34). Here a grand theory is understood as a theorem providing a universal and structural framework that gives meaning to particular and individual phenomena ‘on the ground’. In this process the â€Å"importance of the local and the contingent, (†¦) the extent to which our own concepts and attitudes have been shaped† (Skinner 1985: 8) builds also a part of the universal framework. The second tendency to conceive the idea of grand theory goes a step further and is mainly characterized by C. Wright Mills application of it. He vigorously criticised the concept in his book The Sociological Imagination (1959): â€Å"The basic cause of grand theory is the initial choice of a level of thinking so general that its practitioners cannot logically get down to observation. They never, as grand theorists, get down from the higher generalities to problems in their historical and structural contexts. This absence of a firm sense of genuine problems, in turn, makes for the unreality so noticeable in their pages. † (idib. 1959: 33) As this quote shows, Mills’ understanding of a grand theory goes beyond our first definition. In this second understanding Mills implies that scientists generating grand theories are engrossed in their endeavour to build abstract, normative and all-embracing frameworks and thus neglect the study of the ‘meaning’ behind their constructs. The individual with its particular values and interpretations, as well as variety on the scale of the actual area of research fall behind. III. Participant Observation and its relation to Grand Theory Taken the just outlined conception of grand theory influenced by Mills and putting it in relationship with Malinowski’s methodology of participant observation, the answer to our question whether or not Malinowski’s heritage barred the way of Anthropology to ever produce grand theories appears unambiguously to be ‘yes’. Participant observation in its very nature is close to the individual and aims to explore, over a long period of time, which social and cultural forces influence the human being in a specific setting. Therefore, with regards to Mills conception of grand theory, Anthropology has a birth defect called participant observation that will always prevent it from producing highly abstract grand theories, which stand in no relation to the circumstances from where they were deduced from. A closer look reveals that Malinowski’s understanding of the anthropological formation of theory aligns with Mills criticism towards highly abstract grand theories: â€Å"It would be easy to quote works of high repute, and with a scientific hall-mark on them, in which wholesale generalisations are laid down before us, and we are not informed at all by what actual experiences the writers have reached their conclusions. (†¦) I consider that only such ethnographic sources are of unquestionable scientific value, in which we can clearly draw the line between, on the one hand, the result of direct observation and of native statements and interpretations and on the other, the inferences of the author, based on his common sense of psychological insight. † (Malinowski 1966: 3) Here Malinowski differences between two approaches of data processing. One approach leads to mere ‘wholesale generalisations’ and the other approach also includes the ‘actual experiences’ the researcher faced on the local level that explain on what assumptions and observations her or his generalizations are based on. He hence supports the notion of Anthropology as a science of producing generalisations, as long as they are comprehensible and in direct relation to the reality on the ground. Malinowski’s ethnographies exist to a vast amount of descriptive details that are very specific to certain social groups or individual preferences and he has hence often been criticized as an ‘empiricist’ (see Firth 1957). Also, one could argue that his attempt to put his findings in a neat structured box with columns, as he has done in his article Group and Individual in Functional Analysis (1966) seem rather compelled. Nevertheless, he was able to provide social science with universal and generalizing frameworks on, inter alia, on how social institutions function in relation to society. He states that â€Å"social institutions have a definite organisation, (†¦) they are governed by authority, law and order in their public and personal relations, while the latter are, besides, under the control of extremely complex ties of kinship and clanship. † (Malinowski 1966: 10). Malinowski’s suggestion to use institution as a starting point for social and cultural analysis has â€Å"produced integrated descriptions instead of loosely classified catalogues of traits, and has stimulated the fuller recording of case material from actual behavior as a supplement to the listing of ideal patterns. † (Murdock 1943: 443). Following Malinowski’s ethnographic method and theory construction therefore aims to create a firm framework of the â€Å"social constitution† that â€Å"disentangle[s] the laws and regularities of all cultural phenomena from the irrelevances. † (Malinowski 1966: 10f. ). His approach is thus far more that only an accumulation of meaningless observations of an individuals life in a very specific society. Considering these arguments, Malinowski approach can, indeed, be seen as congruent with our first tendency to understand grand theory. The answer to our initial question should hence be that Anthropology is a science that can certainly produce grand theories in the sense of generalized frameworks and universalistic theories, without neglecting the importance of the â€Å"local and the contingent† (Skinner 1985: 12). Furthermore, Anthropology can be viewed as an established science with its own field of study being the human being and its social group as well as their mutual dependencies and influences. â€Å"Anthropology stands in a clear relationship to the other basic science, because it is concerned with studying phenomena at one clearly discriminate level vis-a-vis those other sciences. † (Good 1996: 32)

Saturday, October 26, 2019

SWM Searching for Perfect Woman :: Personal Narrative Essay Example

SWM Searching for Perfect Woman Ninety-percent. Now that's a large percentage. I don't care what you're doing. If you are taking a test, that's an "A". If you are playing basketball, that's an unheard of free throw percentage. It's just a large percentage of anything. From what I hear, it's also the amount of time guys spend thinking about women. Up until now, however, I wasn't quite sure I agreed with that number. I mean, I have church, ministry, school, and sports on my mind. I was what you would call a "content single man." I was free to go wherever I wanted, be with whomever I chose, and do whatever I wanted. There were no boundaries to my craziness, and no woman could take up more of my thinking time that the three aforementioned activities. Man, how quickly things change. Now, don't go jumping to conclusions. By no means has some woman snatched me up and forced me to occupy myself with thoughts of what to buy her and where to take her to dinner. On the contrary, I am still technically as single man; but, there's one huge difference. I'm now what you would call, to put it delicately -- a desperate single man. Now it's no easy talk to get a man to say that and still keep his pride intact. I mean, ti puts us men at the risk of sounding, well ... desperate, when in fact, we want the general population to believe that we can have any girl we want. The macho image, the right clothes, working out; all this to get a girl so we won't be "alone". Therein lies my problem. My desperation is not a normal case of loneliness. No, it's not even sex hunger (even though most cases fall under this category). Ninety-percent of my time isn't spent thinking about random sex acts with that girl I sit next to in class, or the one I saw at the bar. My problem is, I don't want just "any girl". I'm desperate for "THE girl". Ninety-percent. I think I have reached that point. When that much time is devoted to thinking about one woman (especially when I have no idea who she is), then it's safe to say that I've reached one of the worst times of a man's life. The point at which every female they meet is a possible spouse.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

History of Child Labour Essay

Children are the gifts; they are the precious gifts presented by Almighty God to human life for filling the world with smile, happiness, and hope. Children are the future citizens; it is childhood which determines a child’s future, his/her life and their worthy contributions to the world. Thus it becomes an important aspect for us, for everyone in the society, and for the Government to protect, nourish and work for the overall welfare of children of a particular Nation and the children of the World as a whole. When we discuss about child labour, we know that it is a curse upon the God gifted little ones on Earth. Child Labour, in general, means the employment of children in any work with or without payment. Every child out of school in the age group of 5 to 14 years, children who are paid in work, children who work outside the homes or children who in hazardous industries can be said to be child labourers. According to Stein and Davies, child labour means any work by children that interferes with their full physical development, the opportunities for a desirable minimum education and for their needed recreation. Origin History of child labour can be traced to some dark realms of industrialisation. But a more detailed study of this heinous, shameful practice can reveal that child labour was there much before industrialisation in various forms like in child slavery. If we turn the pages of History we see that there was a custom for youths from the Mediterranean basin to serve as aides, charioteers and armed bearers to their adult counterparts. A few of such examples can be found in Bibles when David serves his King Soul; we find the examples of Hercules and Hylash in Greek Mythology as well. In Greece this practice was considered to be an educational tradition and boys were considered to be an efficient fighting force. Hitler Youth was an official organisation in the Nazi Army. During the battle of Berlin, this youth force was a major part of the German Defences. In India, children used to help and accompany their parents in agricultural and other household activities in ancient times. Thus we see that child labour is not quite a new thing to the world. But during 1780 and 1840s, there was a massive increase in child exploitation. During the industrial revolution, it was very common to find children working in factories. In 1788, more than 60% of workers in textile mills of England and Scotland were children. Since industrialisation, children have been seen working in factories, mines, some having their own small business like selling food, flowers, polishing shoes, serving as waiters in restaurants and as domestic servants as well. The most controversial and worst forms of child labour and exploitation included military use of children, child trafficking, organised begging and child prostitution etc. So these are the various forms of child labour that are being present in today’s societies over the world. Causes of Child Labour  India accounts for the second highest number where child labour of the world is concerned. Africa accounts for the highest number of children employed and exploited. Over population, poverty, parental illiteracy, lack of proper education, urbanisation, availability of cheap child labour are some common causes of wide-spread child labour. Parental ignorance regarding the bad effects of child labour, the ineffectiveness of child labour laws in terms of implementation, non-availability and non-accessibility to schools are some of the other factors which encourages the phenomenon of child labour. It is also very difficult to immature minds and undeveloped bodies to understand and organise themselves against exploitation in the absence of adult guidance. Statistics show that in India, between 2007 and 2009, 5,392 instances of violations of the child labour prohibition laws were detected. Prosecution was launched only in six cases. The period saw only three convictions. In 2006-07, 2,363 child labour employment instances were found, but violators were booked only in one case which resulted in conviction(published in The Times of India, Kolkata edition, Monday, January 25, 2010). Moreover, illiterate and ignorant parents do not understand the need for wholesome physical, cognitive and emotional development of their child. They are themselves uneducated and unexposed, so they do not understand the importance of education for their children. The industrial revolution has also had a negative effect by giving rise to circumstances which encourages child labour. Sometimes multi-nationals prefer to employ child labourers in developing countries especially in garment industries only because they can be recruited for less pay and more work can be extracted from them and there is no problem of union with them. This attitude also makes it difficult for adults to find job in factories, forcing them to drive their little ones to work in factories. Orphanage is an another reason of child labour. Children born out of wed-lock, children with no parents and relatives, often do not find anyone to support which forces them to work for their own survival. Moreover, willingness to exploit children is the most responsible cause for child labour. This is the root of the problem. Even if a family is very poor, the incidence of child labour will be very low unless there are people willing to exploit these children. Possible Solutions  Elimination of poverty, free and compulsory education, proper and strict implementation of the labour laws, abolishment of child trafficking can go a long way in solving the problem of child labour. The World Band, International Monetary Fund can help in eradicating poverty by providing loan to the developing countries. Various poverty elimination programmes have been introduced by our Government as well for the cause. After the 86th Amendment of the Constitution in the year 2002, the provision for free and compulsory education between the age group of 6 to 14 years has been included as fundamental right under Article 21A. Children irrespective of their race, caste, sex, economic condition, religion, place of birth, and parents to whom they born of need to how to read and write. They need social and professional skills that only a school and nurturing environment can provide. The most essential part in this regard is the effective implementation of the policies and strict enforcement of the labour laws. The Government must take strict measures against those employing child labourers in hazardous works and other industries. The NGOs also have a big role to play in this regard. Various NGOs are working for the cause of child labour. MVF in Andhra Pradesh is a striking example. They have been working for the welfare of children in various respects. Compulsory education can help eradicating the problem of child labour up to a large extent. Statistics also show that education has helped in reducing child labour in Western Countries up to a large extent. Most importantly the incidence of child labour would diminish considerably even in the force of poverty, if there are no parties willing to exploit them. Strict implementation of child labour laws and practical and healthy authorities to replace this evil can a go long way to solve this problem of child labour. Along with this, participation of the common educated citizens in the process of eliminating child labour can help out a lot. As common people also, we can help the poor uneducated children in getting at least some idea about the alphabets also! In the words of Bill Gates, we can say that â€Å"Until we’re educating every kid in a fantastic way, until every inner city is cleaned up, there is no shortage of things to do. † Inclusion of Child Labour Laws in Legal Education and other branches of education can also be regarded as effective steps as it creates awareness among the student communities. As a student of law, we can at least make the downtrodden aware of the needs of formal education system and the cause of elimination of child labour so as to provide those helpless children a chance to enhance their capacities to the fullest extent possible and enable them to contribute their best for making this world a better place to live in. What is child labour? Among adults the term â€Å"child labour† conjures up a particular image: children chained to looms in dark mills and sweatshops, as if in a long nightmarish line running from Lancashire in the 1830s right through to the South Asia of today. In reality, children do a variety of work in widely divergent conditions. This work takes place along a continuum, from work that is beneficial, promoting or enhancing a child’s development without interfering with schooling, recreation and rest to work that is simply destructive or exploitative. There are vast areas of activity between these two poles. It is at the most destructive end, where children are used as prostitutes or virtual slaves to repay debts incurred by their parents or grandparents or as workers in particularly hazardous conditions, that efforts are focused to stop such abuse.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Bloodlines Chapter One

I couldn't breathe. There was a hand covering my mouth and another shaking my shoulder, startling me out of a heavy sleep. A thousand frantic thoughts dashed through my mind in the space of a single heartbeat. It was happening. My worst nightmare was coming true. They're here! They've come for me! My eyes blinked, staring wildly around the dark room until my father's face came into focus. I stilled my thrashing, thoroughly confused. He let go and stepped back to regard me coldly. I sat up in the bed, my heart still pounding. ‘Dad?' ‘Sydney. You wouldn't wake up.' Naturally, that was his only apology for scaring me to death. ‘You need to get dressed and make yourself presentable,' he continued. ‘Quickly and quietly. Meet me downstairs in the study.' I felt my eyes widen but didn't hesitate with a response. There was only one acceptable answer. ‘Yes, sir. Of course.' ‘I'll go wake your sister.' He turned for the door, and I leapt out of bed. ‘Zoe?' I exclaimed. ‘What do you need her for?' ‘Shh,' he chastised. ‘Hurry up and get ready. And remember – be quiet. Don't wake your mother.' He shut the door without another word, leaving me staring. The panic that had only just subsided began to surge within me again. What did he need Zoe for? A late-night wake-up meant Alchemist business, and she had nothing to do with that. Technically, neither did I anymore, not since I'd been put on indefinite suspension for bad behavior this summer. What if that's what this was about? What if I was finally being taken to a re-education center and Zoe was replacing me? For a moment, the world swam around me, and I caught hold of my bed to steady myself. Re-education centers. They were the stuff of nightmares for young Alchemists like me, mysterious places where those who grew too close to vampires were dragged off to learn the errors of their ways. What exactly went on there was a secret, one I never wanted to find out. I was pretty sure ‘re-education' was a nice way of saying ‘brainwashing.' I'd only ever seen one person who had come back, and honestly, he'd seemed like half a person after that. There'd been an almost zombielike quality to him, and I didn't even want to think about what they might have done to make him that way. My father's urging to hurry up echoed back through my mind, and I tried to shake off my fears. Remembering his other warning, I also made sure I moved silently. My mother was a light sleeper. Normally, it wouldn't matter if she caught us going off on Alchemist errands, but lately, she hadn't been feeling so kindly toward her husband's (and daughter's) employers. Ever since angry Alchemists had deposited me on my parents' doorstep last month, this household had held all the warmth of a prison camp. Terrible arguments had gone down between my parents, and my sister Zoe and I often found ourselves tiptoeing around. Zoe. Why does he need Zoe? The question burned through me as I scurried to get ready. I knew what ‘presentable' meant. Throwing on jeans and a T-shirt was out of the question. Instead, I tugged on gray slacks and a crisp, white button-down shirt. A darker, charcoal gray cardigan went over it, which I cinched neatly at my waist with a black belt. A small gold cross – the one I always wore around my neck – was the only ornamentation I ever bothered with. My hair was a slightly bigger problem. Even after only two hours of sleep, it was already going in every direction. I smoothed it down as best I could and then coated it with a thick layer of hair spray in the hopes that it would get me through whatever was to come. A light dusting of powder was the only makeup I put on. I had no time for anything more. The entire process took me all of six minutes, which might have been a new record for me. I sprinted down the stairs in perfect silence, careful, again, to avoid waking my mother. The living room was dark, but light spilled out past the not-quite-shut door of my father's study. Taking that as an invitation, I pushed the door open and slipped inside. A hushed conversation stopped at my entrance. My father eyed me from head to toe and showed his approval at my appearance in the way he knew best: by simply withholding criticism. ‘Sydney,' he said brusquely. ‘I believe you know Donna Stanton.' The formidable Alchemist stood near the window, arms crossed, looking as tough and lean as I remembered. I'd spent a lot of time with Stanton recently, though I would hardly say we were friends – especially since certain actions of mine had ended up putting the two of us under a sort of ‘vampire house arrest.' If she harbored any resentment toward me, she didn't show it, though. She nodded to me in polite greeting, her face all business. Three other Alchemists were there as well, all men. They were introduced to me as Barnes, Michaelson, and Horowitz. Barnes and Michaelson were my father and Stanton's age. Horowitz was younger, mid-twenties, and was setting up a tattooist's tools. All of them were dressed like me, wearing business casual clothing in nondescript colors. Our goal was always to look nice but not attract notice. The Alchemists had been playing Men in Black for centuries, long before humans dreamed of life on other worlds. When the light hit their faces the right way, each Alchemist displayed a lily tattoo identical to mine. Again, my unease grew. Was this some kind of interrogation? An assessment to see if my decision to help a renegade half-vampire girl meant my loyalties had changed? I crossed my arms over my chest and schooled my face to neutrality, hoping I looked cool and confident. If I still had a chance to plead my case, I intended to present a solid one. Before anyone could utter another word, Zoe entered. She shut the door behind her and peered around in terror, her eyes wide. Our father's study was huge – he'd built an addition on to our house for it – and it easily held all the occupants. But as I watched my sister take in the scene, I knew she felt stifled and trapped. I met her eyes and tried to send a silent message of sympathy. It must have worked because she scurried to my side, looking only fractionally less afraid. ‘Zoe,' said my father. He let her name hang in the air in this way he had, making it clear to both of us that he was disappointed. I could immediately guess why. She wore jeans and an old sweatshirt and had her brown hair in two cute but sloppy braids. By any other person's standards, she would have been ‘presentable' – but not by his. I felt her cower against me, and I tried to make myself taller and more protective. After making sure his condemnation was felt, our father introduced Zoe to the others. Stanton gave her the same polite nod she'd given me and then turned toward my father. ‘I don't understand, Jared,' said Stanton. ‘Which one of them are you going to use?' ‘Well, that's the problem,' my father said. ‘Zoe was requested . . . but I'm not sure she's ready. In fact, I know she isn't. She's only had the most basic of training. But in light of Sydney's recent . . . experiences . . .' My mind immediately began to pull the pieces together. First, and most importantly, it seemed I wasn't going to be sent to a re-education center. Not yet, at least. This was about something else. My earlier suspicion was correct. There was some mission or task afoot, and someone wanted to sub in Zoe because she, unlike certain other members of her family, had no history of betraying the Alchemists. My father was right that she'd only received basic instruction. Our jobs were hereditary, and I had been chosen years ago as the next Alchemist in the Sage family. My older sister, Carly, had been passed over and was now away at college and too old. He'd taught Zoe as backup instead, in the event something happened to me, like a car accident or vampire mauling. I stepped forward, not knowing what I was going to say until I spoke. The only thing I knew for sure was that I could not let Zoe get sucked into the Alchemists' schemes. I feared for her safety more than I did going to a re-education center – and I was pretty afraid of that. ‘I spoke to a committee about my actions after they happened,' I said. ‘I was under the impression that they understood why I did the things I did. I'm fully qualified to serve in whatever way you need – much more so than my sister. I have real-world experience. I know this job inside and out.' ‘A little too much real-world experience, if memory serves,' said Stanton dryly. ‘I for one would like to hear these ‘reasons' again,' said Barnes, using his fingers to make air quotes. ‘I'm not thrilled about tossing a half-trained girl out there, but I also find it hard to believe someone who aided a vampire criminal is ‘fully qualified to serve.† More pretentious air quotes. I smiled back pleasantly, masking my anger. If I showed my true emotions, it wouldn't help my case. ‘I understand, sir. But Rose Hathaway was eventually proven innocent of the crime she'd been accused of. So, I wasn't technically aiding a criminal. My actions eventually helped find the real murderer.' ‘Be that as it may, we – and you – didn't know she was ‘innocent' at the time,' he said. ‘I know,' I said. ‘But I believed she was.' Barnes snorted. ‘And there's the problem. You should've believed what the Alchemists told you, not run off with your own far-fetched theories. At the very least, you should've taken what evidence you'd gathered to your superiors.' Evidence? How could I explain that it wasn't evidence that had driven me to help Rose so much as a feeling in my gut that she was telling the truth? But that was something I knew they'd never understand. All of us were trained to believe the worst of her kind. Telling them that I had seen truth and honesty in her wouldn't help my cause here. Telling them that I'd been blackmailed into helping her by another vampire was an even worse explanation. There was only one argument that the Alchemists might possibly be able to comprehend. ‘I . . . I didn't tell anyone because I wanted to get all the credit for it. I was hoping that if I uncovered it, I could get a promotion and a better assignment.' It took every ounce of self-control I had to say that lie straight-faced. I felt humiliated at making such an admission. As though ambition would really drive me to such extreme behaviors! It made me feel slimy and shallow. But, as I'd suspected, this was something the other Alchemists could understand. Michaelson snorted. ‘Misguided, but not entirely unexpected for her age.' The other men shared equally condescending looks, even my father. Only Stanton looked doubtful, but then, she'd witnessed more of the fiasco than they had. My father glanced among the others, waiting for further comment. When none came, he shrugged. ‘If no one has any objections, then, I'd rather we use Sydney. Not that I even entirely understand what you need her for.' There was a slightly accusing tone in his voice over not having been filled in yet. Jared Sage didn't like to be left out of the loop. ‘I have no problem with using the older girl,' said Barnes. ‘But keep the younger one around until the others get here, in case they have any objections.' I wondered how many ‘others' would be joining us. My father's study was no stadium. Also, the more people who came, the more important this case probably was. My skin grew cold as I wondered what the assignment could possibly be. I'd seen the Alchemists cover up major disasters with only one or two people. How colossal would something have to be to require this much help? Horowitz spoke up for the first time. ‘What do you want me to do?' ‘Re-ink Sydney,' said Stanton decisively. ‘Even if she doesn't go, it won't hurt to have the spells reinforced. No point in inking Zoe until we know what we're doing with her.' My eyes flicked to my sister's noticeably bare – and pale – cheeks. Yes. As long as there was no lily there, she was free. Once the tattoo was emblazoned on your skin, there was no going back. You belonged to the Alchemists. The reality of that had only hit me in the last year or so. I'd certainly never realized it while growing up. My father had dazzled me from a very young age about the rightness of our duty. I still believed in that rightness but wished he'd also mentioned just how much of my life it would consume. Horowitz had set up a folding table on the far side of my father's study. He patted it and gave me a friendly smile. ‘Step right up,' he told me. ‘Get your ticket.' Barnes shot him a disapproving look. ‘Please. You could show a little respect for this ritual, David.' Horowitz merely shrugged. He helped me lie down, and though I was too afraid of the others to openly smile back, I hoped my gratitude showed in my eyes. Another smile from him told me he understood. Turning my head, I watched as Barnes reverently set a black briefcase on a side table. The other Alchemists gathered around and clasped their hands together in front of them. He must be the hierophant, I realized. Most of what the Alchemists did was rooted in science, but a few tasks required divine assistance. After all, our core mission to protect humanity was rooted in the belief that vampires were unnatural and went against God's plan. That's why hierophants – our priests – worked side by side with our scientists. ‘Oh Lord,' he intoned, closing his eyes. ‘Bless these elixirs. Remove the taint of the evil they carry so that their life-giving power shines through purely to us, your servants.' He opened the briefcase and removed four small vials, each filled with dark red liquid. Labels that I couldn't read marked each one. With a steady hand and practiced eye, Barnes poured precise amounts from each vial into a larger bottle. When he'd used all four, he produced a tiny packet of powder that he emptied into the rest of the mix. I felt a tingle in the air, and the bottle's contents turned to gold. He handed the bottle to Horowitz, who stood ready with a needle. Everyone relaxed, the ceremonial part complete. I obediently turned away, exposing my cheek. A moment later, Horowitz's shadow fell over me. ‘This will sting a little, but nothing like when you originally got it. It's just a touch-up,' he explained kindly. ‘I know,' I said. I'd been re-inked before. ‘Thanks.' The needle pricked my skin, and I tried not to wince. It did sting, but like he'd said, Horowitz wasn't creating a new tattoo. He was simply injecting small amounts of the ink into my existing tattoo, recharging its power. I took this as a good sign. Zoe might not be out of danger yet, but surely they wouldn't go to the trouble of re-inking me if they were just going to send me to a re-education center. ‘Can you brief us on what's happening while we're waiting?' asked my father. ‘All I was told was that you needed a teen girl.' The way he said ‘teen girl' made it sound like a disposable role. I fought back a wave of anger at my father. That's all we were to him. ‘We have a situation,' I heard Stanton say. Finally, I'd get some answers. ‘With the Moroi.' I breathed a small sigh of relief. Better them than the Strigoi. Any ‘situation' the Alchemists faced always involved one of the vampire races, and I'd take the living, non-killing ones any day. They almost seemed human at times (though I'd never tell anyone here that) and lived and died like we did. Strigoi, however, were twisted freaks of nature. They were undead, murderous vampires created either when a Strigoi forcibly made a victim drink its blood or when a Moroi purposely took the life of another through blood drinking. A situation with the Strigoi usually ended with someone dead. All sorts of possible scenarios played through my mind as I considered what issue had prompted action from the Alchemists tonight: a human who had noticed someone with fangs, a feeder who had escaped and gone public, a Moroi treated by human doctors. . . . Those were the kinds of problems we Alchemists faced the most, ones I had been trained to handle and cover up with ease. Why they would need ‘a teenage girl' for any of those, however, was a mystery. ‘You know that they elected their girl queen last month,' said Barnes. I could practically see him rolling his eyes. Everyone in the room murmured affirmatively. Of course they knew about that. The Alchemists paid careful attention to the political goings-on of the Moroi. Knowing what vampires were doing was crucial to keeping them secret from the rest of humanity – and keeping the rest of humanity safe from them. That was our purpose, to protect our brethren. Know thy enemy was taken very seriously with us. The girl the Moroi had elected queen, Vasilisa Dragomir, was eighteen, just like me. ‘Don't tense,' said Horowitz gently. I hadn't realized I had been. I tried to relax, but thinking of Vasilisa Dragomir made me think of Rose Hathaway. Uneasily, I wondered if maybe I shouldn't have been so quick to assume I was out of trouble here. Mercifully, Barnes simply kept going with the story, not mentioning my indirect connection to the girl queen and her associates. ‘Well, as shocking as that is to us, it's been just as shocking to some of their own people. There's been a lot of protests and dissidence. No one's tried to attack the Dragomir girl, but that's probably because she's so well guarded. Her enemies, it seems, have therefore found a work-around: her sister.' ‘Jill,' I said, speaking before I could stop myself. Horowitz tsked me for moving, and I immediately regretted drawing attention to myself and my knowledge of the Moroi. Nevertheless, an image of Jillian Mastrano flashed into my mind, tall and annoyingly slim like all Moroi, with big, pale green eyes that always seemed nervous. And she had good reason to be. At fifteen, Jill had discovered she was Vasilisa's illegitimate sister, making her the only other member of their royal family's line. She too was tied to the mess I'd gotten myself into this summer. ‘You know their laws,' continued Stanton, after a moment of awkward silence. Her tone conveyed what we all thought of Moroi laws. An elected monarch? It made no sense, but what else could one expect from unnatural beings like vampires? ‘And Vasilisa must have one family member in order to hold her throne. Therefore, her enemies have decided if they can't directly remove her, they'll remove her family.' A chill ran down my spine at the unspoken meaning, and I again commented without thinking. ‘Did something happen to Jill?' This time, I'd at least chosen a moment when Horowitz was refilling his needle, so there was no danger of messing up the tattoo. I bit my lip to prevent myself from saying anything else, imagining the chastisement in my father's eyes. Showing concern for a Moroi was the last thing I wanted to do, considering my uncertain status. I didn't have any strong attachment to Jill, but the thought of someone trying to kill a fifteen-year-old girl – the same age as Zoe – was appalling, no matter what race she belonged to. ‘That's what's unclear,' Stanton mused. ‘She was attacked, we know that much, but we can't tell if she received any real injury. Regardless, she's fine now, but the attempt happened at their own Court, indicating they have traitors at high levels.' Barnes snorted in disgust. ‘What can you expect? How their ridiculous race has managed to survive as long as they have without turning on each other is beyond me.' There were mutters of agreement. ‘Ridiculous or not, though, we cannot have them in civil war,' said Stanton. ‘Some Moroi have acted out in protest, enough that they've caught the attention of human media. We can't allow that. We need their government stable, and that means ensuring this girl's safety. Maybe they can't trust themselves, but they can trust us.' There was no use in my pointing out that the Moroi didn't really trust the Alchemists. But, since we had no interest in killing off the Moroi monarch or her family, I supposed that made us more trustworthy than some. ‘We need to make the girl disappear,' said Michaelson. ‘At least until the Moroi can undo the law that makes Vasilisa's throne so precarious. Hiding Mastrano with her own people isn't safe at the moment, so we need to conceal her among humans.' Disdain dripped from his words. ‘But it's imperative she also remains concealed from humans. Our race cannot know theirs exists.' ‘After consultation with the guardians, we've chosen a location we all believe will be safe for her – both from Moroi and Strigoi,' said Stanton. ‘However, to make sure she – and those with her – remain undetected, we're going to need Alchemists on hand, dedicated solely to her needs in case any complications come up.' My father scoffed. ‘That's a waste of our resources. Not to mention unbearable for whoever has to stay with her.' I had a bad feeling about what was coming. ‘This is where Sydney comes in,' said Stanton. ‘We'd like her to be one of the Alchemists that accompanies Jillian into hiding.' ‘What?' exclaimed my father. ‘You can't be serious.' ‘Why not?' Stanton's tone was calm and level. ‘They're close in age, so being together won't raise suspicion. And Sydney already knows the girl. Surely spending time with her won't be as ‘unbearable' as it might be for other Alchemists.' The subtext was loud and clear. I wasn't free of my past, not yet. Horowitz paused and lifted the needle, allowing me the chance to speak. My mind raced. Some response was expected. I didn't want to sound too upset by the plan. I needed to restore my good name among the Alchemists and show my willingness to follow orders. That being said, I also didn't want to sound as though I were too comfortable with vampires or their half-human counterparts, the dhampirs. ‘Spending time with any of them is never fun,' I said carefully, keeping my voice cool and haughty. ‘Doesn't matter how much you do it. But I'll do whatever's necessary to keep us – and everyone else – safe.' I didn't need to explain that ‘everyone' meant humans. ‘There, you see, Jared?' Barnes sounded pleased with the answer. ‘The girl knows her duty. We've made a number of arrangements already that should make things run smoothly, and we certainly wouldn't send her there alone – especially since the Moroi girl won't be alone either.' ‘What do you mean?' My father still didn't sound happy about any of this, and I wondered what was upsetting him the most. Did he truly think I might be in danger? Or was he simply worried that spending more time with the Moroi would turn my loyalties even more? ‘How many of them are coming?' ‘They're sending a dhampir,' said Michaelson. ‘One of their guardians, which I really don't have a problem with. The location we've chosen should be Strigoi free, but if it's not, better they fight those monsters than us.' The guardians were specially trained dhampirs who served as bodyguards. ‘There you are,' Horowitz told me, stepping back. ‘You can sit up.' I obeyed and resisted the urge to touch my cheek. The only thing I felt from his work was the needle's sting, but I knew powerful magic was working its way through me, magic that would give me a superhuman immune system and prevent me from speaking about vampire affairs to ordinary humans. I tried not to think about the other part, about where that magic came from. The tattoos were a necessary evil. The others were still standing, not paying attention to me – well, except for Zoe. She still looked confused and afraid and kept glancing anxiously my way. ‘There also may be another Moroi coming along,' continued Stanton. ‘Honestly, I'm not sure why, but they were very insistent he be with Mastrano. We told them the fewer of them we had to hide, the better, but . . . well, they seemed to think it was necessary and said they'd make arrangements for him there. I think he's some Ivashkov. Irrelevant.' ‘Where is there?' asked my father. ‘Where do you want to send her?' Excellent question. I'd been wondering the same thing. My first full-time job with the Alchemists had sent me halfway around the world, to Russia. If the Alchemists were intent on hiding Jill, there was no telling what remote location they'd send her to. For a moment, I dared to hope we might end up in my dream city: Rome. Legendary works of art and Italian food seemed like a good way to offset paperwork and vampires. ‘Palm Springs,' said Barnes. ‘Palm Springs?' I echoed. That was not what I'd been expecting. When I thought of Palm Springs, I thought of movie stars and golf courses. Not exactly a Roman holiday, but not the Arctic either. A small, wry smile tugged at Stanton's lips. ‘It's in the desert and receives a lot of sunlight. Completely undesirable for Strigoi.' ‘Wouldn't it be undesirable for Moroi too?' I asked, thinking ahead. Moroi didn't incinerate in the sun like Strigoi, but excessive exposure to it still made Moroi weak and sick. ‘Well, yes,' admitted Stanton. ‘But a little discomfort is worth the safety it provides. So long as the Moroi spend most of their time inside, it won't be a problem. Plus, it'll discourage other Moroi from coming and – ‘ The sound of a car door opening and slamming outside the window caught everyone's attention. ‘Ah,' said Michaelson. ‘There are the others. I'll let them in.' He slipped out of the study and presumably headed toward the front door to admit whoever had arrived. Moments later, I heard a new voice speaking as Michaelson returned to us. ‘Well, Dad couldn't make it, so he just sent me,' the new voice was saying. The study door opened, and my heart stopped. No, I thought. Anyone but him. ‘Jared,' said the newcomer, catching sight of my father. ‘Great to see you again.' My father, who had barely spared me a glance all night, actually smiled. ‘Keith! I'd been wondering how you've been.' The two of them shook hands, and a wave of disgust rolled through me. ‘This is Keith Darnell,' said Michaelson, introducing him to the others. ‘Tom Darnell's son?' asked Barnes, impressed. Tom Darnell was a legendary leader among the Alchemists. ‘The same,' said Keith cheerfully. He was about five years older than me, with blond hair a shade lighter than mine. I knew a lot of girls thought he was attractive. Me? I found him vile. He was pretty much the last person I'd expected to see here. ‘And I believe you know the Sage sisters,' added Michaelson. Keith turned his blue eyes first to Zoe, eyes that were just fractionally different from each other in color. One eye, made of glass, stared blankly ahead and didn't move at all. The other one winked at her as his grin widened. He can still wink, I thought furiously. That annoying, stupid, condescending wink! But then, why wouldn't he? We'd all heard about the accident he'd had this year, an accident that had cost him an eye. He'd still survived with one good one, but somehow, in my mind, I'd thought the loss of an eye would stop that infuriating winking. ‘Little Zoe! Look at you, all grown up,' he said fondly. I'm not a violent person, not by any means, but I suddenly wanted to hit him for looking at my sister that way. She managed a smile for him, clearly relieved to see a familiar face here. When Keith turned toward me, however, all that charm and friendliness vanished. The feeling was mutual. The burning, black hatred building up inside of me was so overwhelming that it took me a moment to formulate any sort of response. ‘Hello, Keith,' I said stiffly. Keith didn't even attempt to match my forced civility. He immediately turned toward the senior Alchemists. ‘What is she doing here?' ‘We know you requested Zoe,' said Stanton levelly, ‘but after consideration, we decided it would be best if Sydney fulfill this role. Her experience dwarfs any concerns about her past actions.' ‘No,' said Keith swiftly, turning that steely blue gaze back on me. ‘There is no way she can come, no way I'm trusting some twisted vamp lover to screw this up for all of us. We're taking her sister.'

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Aspects of American Aviation Industry

Aspects of American Aviation Industry Introduction Aviation has increased mobility and made travelling to some of the places where other means of transport would reach an easy task. In conjunction with that, aviation has changed the way people conduct their lifestyles because, due to its speed and ability to navigate almost all places in the world, cultural factors and lifestyles can easily be transported from one place to another. But aviation has not only expanded but also impacted our society in different ways both positively and negatively.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Aspects of American Aviation Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More American Aviation History Though airplanes were fast used by other countries for military purposes, America was the first country that used airplanes for commercial civil and non-military functions which were mostly aero-photography, crop spraying and delivery of mail. America was among the first countries where airplanes were discovered in early 1900’s but the government showed minimal interest, and the industry did not expand as fast as it did in other countries in Europe. For years therefore, America remained behind technologically as Europe was improving its technology in the aviation industry. Fortunately, America started picking up in early 1930’s and by late 1930’s America’s aviation industry had expanded very much that America was the largest manufacturer and exported the largest number of aircrafts than any other country in the world (Crouch 314). After World War II America’s aviation industry increased the rate at which it was expanding with the government injecting money for research and development leading to discovery of advanced aircrafts. By late 1980’s America’s technology had tremendously improved making the country the most advanced in the world in terms of aviation technology. Positive Aspects Aviation expansion has helped in propelling economic growth in America because of the economic benefits that are associated with it. The number of passengers being transported has been improving from the years following World War II therefore, increasing the demand for air transport thus increasing revenue for airlines. Aviation has also gone a long way in influencing the expansion of trade by making importation and exportation faster and convenient, hence boosting international trade and this has helped in increasing aggregate income of Americans (Verhovek 141). The deregulation of the airline industry in 1978 enabled increase in competition and efficiency in the airline industry, leading to reduction of fares and increase in areas covered thus benefiting the stakeholders. In addition to that, aviation industry has led to the discovery of military jets that have put America in a good position to defend itself from enemies.Advertising Looking for essay on aviation? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More America has the most advanced and fast military planes which make it afford one of the most well equipped and strong military sector in the world. In conjunction with that, during 1980’s through to 1990’s America produced wide bodied aircrafts which reduced the costs of operation for airlines due to economies of scale and economies of scope (Crouch 531). Furthermore, discovery of jet engines helped in increasing the speed of air planes and though the initial jet engines were not fuel efficient, advancement in technology led to emergence of piston engines which were more fuel efficient. Negative Aspects The increase in aircraft operations has also led to some negative impacts in the American society. To begin with, airplanes release gases from their fuels when they fly thus contributing to global warming and ocean acidification. Carbon dioxide and other nitrogenous gases are released by airplane engines due to fuel com bustion as well as from ground airport vehicles, emissions from energy demanding activities in airport buildings and in the manufacturer of aircraft. Additionally, aviation industry contributes highly to greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to ozone layer depletion. Research conducted in 1997 showed that aviation industry contributed up to 3% of US greenhouse gas emissions from human activities, implying that aviation plays a significant role in depleting the Ozone layer (Wolfe 353). On the same note, the growth in aviation has brought with it the effect of noise pollution. Aircrafts produce a lot of noise when they are taking off or landing and this highly affects people who are living close to airports. Besides the direct effects of noise pollution, it is also a financial expense since money has to be spent in combating and reducing its effects. Since the end of the Cold war, the aviation manufacturing has been declining with manufacturers reducing to just about five manufact ures from the once high number of 47 (Verhovek 98). Consequently, employment has reduced in the aviation industry by around half during the same period. On top of that, the quality of plane produced in America has been declining in recent years, and in 2003 the secretary of the air force and the air force chief of staff general warned that their pilots were doing better if they were flying imported airplanes. This has been partly as a result of people viewing aviation negatively and also the lack of enough research. It has also been noted that in recent years the number of students who want to study aviation engineering is declining sharply (Wolfe 254).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Aspects of American Aviation Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Aviation industry has gone through testing times in America to gain the market share and public confidence it enjoys today. On top of that, aviation indu stry requires constant technological advancement therefore the government should be ready to invest in research and development so as the country may keep up with other countries. Nevertheless, aviation plays an important role in our economies and should therefore be given adequate attention. Crouch, Tom D. Wings: A History of Aviation From Kites to the Space Age. Washington: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, 2003. Print. Verhovek, Sam Howe. Jet Age: The Comet, the 707, and the Race to Shrink the World. New York: Penguin Group, 2011. Print. Wolfe, Tom. The Right Stuff. New York: Picador, 2008. Print.

Monday, October 21, 2019

How to Withdraw from a Class

How to Withdraw from a Class While you know how to register for classes, knowing how to withdraw from a class can be a little more challenging. After all, your school probably didnt go over how to drop a class during orientation week; everyone is too busy planning and preparing for the start of a new semester. Sometimes, however, your awesome start-of-the-semester plans dont work out and you need to drop one or more classes. So just where do you begin? Talk to Your Academic Adviser Talking with your academic adviser is an absolute necessity, so start there. Be prepared, however; your adviser will likely want to ask you a few questions about why youre dropping and, if applicable, talk about whether or not you should drop the class. If you both decide that dropping the course is the best option, however, your adviser will have to sign off on your forms and approve the decision. He or she can also help you plan out how youre going to make up the course content and/or units that youll need to graduate. Talk to Your Professor You likely cant just drop the class without talking to the professor (even if theyre a bad one) or at least the TA. They are accountable for your progress in the class and for turning in your final grade at the end of the semester. Make an appointment or stop in during office hours to let your professor and/or TA know that youre dropping the class. If youve already talked to your academic adviser, the conversation should go pretty smoothly- and quickly. And given that youll likely need your professors signature on a form or approval to drop, this step is a requirement as well as a courtesy. Head to the Registrar's Office Even if your academic adviser and your professor know that youre going to drop the class, you have to officially let your college know. Even if you can do everything online, check in with your registrar to make sure you have submitted everything they need and that youve submitted it on time. Additionally, follow-up to make sure everything goes through okay. While you may have submitted your materials, they may not have received them for whatever reason. You dont want your withdrawal to turn into a ​fail on your transcript, and its much easier to confirm now that your drop went through okay than it is to correct things in several months when you realize an error was made. Tie up Any Loose Ends Make sure to let any lab partners know that youve dropped the class, for example. Similarly, return any equipment you may have checked out and remove yourself from the list of students who have a music rehearsal space reserved on a rotation basis. You dont want to needlessly be using resources that other students need or, even worse, be charged for their use when you dont need them any longer.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Definition of Victorian

Definition of Victorian The adjective Victorian is used to described something from the period of the reign of Britain’s Queen Victoria. And, as Victoria was on the throne for more than 60 years, from 1837 to 1901, the term is also used to describe things from the 19th century in general. The word is used to describe a wide variety of items, such as Victorian authors or Victorian architecture or even Victorian clothing and fashion. But in its most common usage the word is used to describe social attitudes, implying an emphasis on moral rigidity, priggishness, and prudery. Queen Victoria herself was often perceived as being overly serious and possessing little or no sense of humor. This was due in part to her having been widowed at a relatively young age. The loss of her husband, Prince Albert, was devastating, and for the rest of her life she wore black mourning clothes. Surprising Victorian Attitudes The concept of the Victorian era as repressive is true to some extent, of course. Society at the time was much more formal. But many advances were made during Victorian times, especially in the fields of industry and technology. And a number of societal reforms also took place. One sign of great technological progress would be the enormous technology show held in London, the Great Exhibition of 1851. Queen Victorias husband, Prince Albert, organized it, and Queen Victoria herself visited the displays of new inventions in the Crystal Palace on numerous occasions. And social reformers were also a factor in Victorian life. Florence Nightingale became a British hero by introducing her reforms to the nursing profession. And the novelist Charles Dickens created plots highlighting problems in British society. Dickens had gotten disgusted with the plight of the working poor in Britain during the period of industrialization. And his classic holiday tale, A Christmas Carol, was written specifically as a protest against the treatment of workers by an increasingly greedy upper class. A Victorian Empire The Victorian Era was a peak time for the British Empire, and the concept of Victorians being repressive is more true in dealings internationally. For instance, a bloody uprising by native troops in India, the Sepoy Mutiny, was brutally put down. And in Britains closest colony in the 19th century, Ireland, periodic rebellions were put down. The British also fought in many other places, including two wars in Afghanistan. Despite troubles in many places, the British Empire held together during Victorias reign. And when she celebrated her 60th anniversary on the throne in 1897, troops from across the empire paraded during the massive celebrations in London. The Meaning of Victorian Perhaps the most precise definition of the word Victorian would restrict it purely to the years of the late 1830s to the beginning of the 20th century. But, as it was a period of so much happening, the word has taken on many connotations, which vary from the notion of repression in society to great progress in technology. And as the Victorian Era was profoundly interesting, perhaps that is inevitable.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Rural Telecom Industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Rural Telecom Industry - Essay Example Cities, towns, villages, remote interiors across the globe, are all getting connected through fixed landlines or GSMs. In this context, besides the basic issue of connectivity, network management has become a challenge. A few years ago, getting connectivity to rural areas was a huge task. Today, it is the management of data, which has taken precedence in the area. Here, we review the challenges faced by the rural telecom industry worldwide and the shifts that have taken place in the past few years. "Network managers tasked with managing their company's telecom budget are familiar with the fact that their bills are often incorrect. From charges for circuits that should have been disconnected years ago to using old, higher rates for current data lines, errors are not uncommon." Other companies, which outsource the software solutions, are also offering bill auditing and TEM services. As telecom companies grow to cater to the needs of the rural populance, the same business users may just find an increased need for TEM products or services. According to C. Jagadish*,,1, Vinod Kumar Jammula1 and Timothy A. Gonsalves2 in the paper Low-cost data communication network for rural telecom network management "the backbone networking infrastructure of rural telecom networks is often costly and is of limited bandwidth. ... According to C. Jagadish*,,1, Vinod Kumar Jammula1 and Timothy A. Gonsalves2 in the paper Low-cost data communication network for rural telecom network management "the backbone networking infrastructure of rural telecom networks is often costly and is of limited bandwidth. The availability of connectivity such as DSL or leased lines is scarce. In order to keep operational costs low, these rural telecom networks are often kept unmanned and are managed from a centralized network management station (NMS). This often requires a low-cost, efficient and reliable data communication network (DCN) between the rural telecom equipment and the central NMS. The conventional DCN used for telecom management consists either of leased lines or Internet connectivity. These are often costly and not freely available in rural areas." The researchers developed a new DCN model, based on dial-up, which is easily available. This DCN has been implemented in corDECT networks, which is currently in use in India and Tunisia, and is under implementation in other countries. It has been shown that this DCN meets the QoS requirements of a telecom network at an affordable cost. Today in India and other developing countries the telecom network is fast growing and considered to be critical for technological development. But the growth rate in urban and rural areas is asymmetrical. Telecom operators often neglect deployment in rural/undeveloped areas. The major discouraging factors are low population density, low affordability and lack of skilled personnel. Thus factors absolutely necessary for a rural telecom solution are low cost infrastructure and low operational costs. A centralized network management system (NMS) will ensure low infrastructure cost . A centralized NMS will

Friday, October 18, 2019

Discussion Question Responses for Strategic Management Assignment

Discussion Question Responses for Strategic Management - Assignment Example I strongly agree to the idea that companies’ missions should share a strong link with the vision. A mission is better described or elaborated, as compared to the vision. This is because it explicates the reason for the firm’s existence, the technicality it desires to employ in order to achieve its goals and the scope of its activities or operations. However, I reason that it is not necessary that firms include social responsibility or roles in their missions, even though the idea sells the company. This is because it makes the company engage in unnecessary activities and expenses that can be easily avoided. Acision, a data management firm, offers a comprehensive vision statement that encompasses every important element. First, it understands customers’ needs then followed by the approach employed to meet the needs (Acision, 2011). The company also points the uniqueness of their services by pointing out that their data will be evolving. This is an impeccable approach, as it will ensure the company fully meets its client desires. It is important to note how Acision idealizes themselves as the most prominent firm in mobile data. Despite the fact that the statement itself is debatable, it provides a motivation to the employee when conceptualized. I, therefore, applaud how the company states its values and promote employees condition to uphold the code of ethics strictly. However, I am displeased by the fact that the vision does not state the welfare of employees in the company. I do agree that mission and value statements should be evaluated to test whether they are within reach of practical effort. In discussing the ineffectiveness of a firm’s vision or mission, I find it imperative to look at the factors that cause the same. A clear vision enables easy formulation or creation of company objectives. However, if

Interview in Cyberlaw Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Interview in Cyberlaw - Assignment Example Adult 2: Am not happy with such sites since they do give some private information about a person which can sometimes create scandals in their lives. Also, one cannot control the information such sites are giving unless by use of law and this may cost one a lot of money and time. Adult 1: Yes the Federal Government should implement laws dealing on the way companies use ones personal information. For example, it should limit the company’s rights on posting their employee’s credit card information, family members’ information as well as social security number. Adult 2: The federal government should implement such laws as by doing so companies will have to consult their employees before posting some personal information. For instance, the government should include that a company should not to post any personal information regarding an employee’s financial status. Adult 2: I think the company should be the one held responsible. Let’s say the information given about any person contradicts the law, the organisation posting the information is the one that should be held responsible and not the individual. This should serve as a way of restricting the information that companies post concerning their employees. I would advice employees to be very careful when giving their personal information to the employer as they can find the information at any time in the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Social Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Social Policy - Essay Example It has been playing a curial role in meeting the health demands of the population. There are several intersectoral initiatives that have been taken to address the issue of health care in the UK. This has been influenced by the changes taking place in the health environment in the world and in the continental Europe. The changes have been implemented at the national levels with a trickle down effect felt in the lower level. The UK government has considered health care to be one of its important factor in the development of the social and economic life of the people. Most of the initiatives which are taken at the n atonal level are implemented through the NHS which is then implemented at the local government level. One of the current initiatives that have been implemented in the UK is the individual budget which is to start working in 2009. Under this program individual will be given more autonomy in the management of the funds that they receive from the social care system. This has also been extended to the health care system where individual will be given autonomy to decide on how they are going to use their money. Most of those patients who have been receiving their medical care through the NHS under the social care system will not be given autonomy to decide on the most appropriate health care providers that they will be attending. (Buttler, 2004) This initiative is expected to give the users of the social health care more independence in management of their health care needs. Unlike in the paste where the have been receiving their health services through the NHS they will be able to access these services even from the private practitioners. (Holmes, 2007) Another current heath care initiative that is likely to have an impact on the social care system is the health screening for over 40s. Under this initiative, the government twill be screening those who are over 40 years fro health complications that they may be facing. This initiative is expected to counteract the spreading wave of lifestyle diseases that continued to threaten the life of the aging population. This is a national program that will be expected to identify vulnerability to the vascular disease that has continued to claim the lives of many people in the UK. It is expected that the initiative will help to prevent up to 9500 heath attacks and strokes which occur every years and this could lead to saving of more than 2,000 lives. In the UK, vascular diseases in collection including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney diseases affects the lives of more than four million and leads to loss of more than 170,000 people every year. Vascular disease have also been shown to account for more than half of the mortality rate gap that exist between the rich and the poor as result of the gap in their lifestyles. Education There are several changes that have also taken place in the UK social care system as far as education is concerned. One of the problem that had been experienced in the education sector for along time had been the problem of inclusion education. The current move by the government to work for inclusive education in which children learn in the same class regardless of their disability has been seen as one of the most important way of helping all children access classroom. (Harwin, 2004) Another plan that took effect in 2003 saw the sending

Leadership Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Leadership - Article Example ibe, he says, will attempt to maximize each person’s contribution to the organization as long as they all stay together as iron filings and focus on the organization’s core values. It is the role and responsibility of leaders in an organization to ensure that their employees are aligned toward sharing a common desire so that their efforts can be synchronized to jointly achieve goals. Alignment by Kaplan and Norton (2006) says that corporations will be more productive if the leadership realizes that the whole is more valuable than the total sum of its differentiated parts. George, Kaplan, and Logan both agree that foe effective operations in any organizational structure, employees need to work together with a shared mission and vision that should also be in sync with that of the organization so that the organization’s goals can be realized. Without such alignment, workers’ efforts will be haphazardly distributed so that no common goal can be achieved. I do agree with the three scholars on their idea about alignment. it is much easier to work with a whole team of employees whose actions, passions, ideas, goals, and agenda are all in sync with the organization’s mission, vision, and core values. This would be the perfect situation for any employee and leader and for the organization to thrive into maximum profitability. What I, however, find in all the arguments above is a normative argument of how an ideal situation for an organization would be. In a highly differentiated society with variance in generations, sex, race, socio-political-economic socialization, and liberalism in personal preferences, it is almost impossible to align employees to comply fully with an organization’s mission and vision. Leaders and employers in any organization would agree with this as an ideal situation that is so hard to come by. What leaders and employers need to do is put in measures that will ensure cooperation on the part of the employees in working toward achieving

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Social Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Social Policy - Essay Example It has been playing a curial role in meeting the health demands of the population. There are several intersectoral initiatives that have been taken to address the issue of health care in the UK. This has been influenced by the changes taking place in the health environment in the world and in the continental Europe. The changes have been implemented at the national levels with a trickle down effect felt in the lower level. The UK government has considered health care to be one of its important factor in the development of the social and economic life of the people. Most of the initiatives which are taken at the n atonal level are implemented through the NHS which is then implemented at the local government level. One of the current initiatives that have been implemented in the UK is the individual budget which is to start working in 2009. Under this program individual will be given more autonomy in the management of the funds that they receive from the social care system. This has also been extended to the health care system where individual will be given autonomy to decide on how they are going to use their money. Most of those patients who have been receiving their medical care through the NHS under the social care system will not be given autonomy to decide on the most appropriate health care providers that they will be attending. (Buttler, 2004) This initiative is expected to give the users of the social health care more independence in management of their health care needs. Unlike in the paste where the have been receiving their health services through the NHS they will be able to access these services even from the private practitioners. (Holmes, 2007) Another current heath care initiative that is likely to have an impact on the social care system is the health screening for over 40s. Under this initiative, the government twill be screening those who are over 40 years fro health complications that they may be facing. This initiative is expected to counteract the spreading wave of lifestyle diseases that continued to threaten the life of the aging population. This is a national program that will be expected to identify vulnerability to the vascular disease that has continued to claim the lives of many people in the UK. It is expected that the initiative will help to prevent up to 9500 heath attacks and strokes which occur every years and this could lead to saving of more than 2,000 lives. In the UK, vascular diseases in collection including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney diseases affects the lives of more than four million and leads to loss of more than 170,000 people every year. Vascular disease have also been shown to account for more than half of the mortality rate gap that exist between the rich and the poor as result of the gap in their lifestyles. Education There are several changes that have also taken place in the UK social care system as far as education is concerned. One of the problem that had been experienced in the education sector for along time had been the problem of inclusion education. The current move by the government to work for inclusive education in which children learn in the same class regardless of their disability has been seen as one of the most important way of helping all children access classroom. (Harwin, 2004) Another plan that took effect in 2003 saw the sending

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Efficient Functioning of a Capitalist System Coursework

Efficient Functioning of a Capitalist System - Coursework Example The country's law should also assist companies to come-up with their CSR policies; hence the company law has to bring required amendments. Like other countries, the concept of CSR is gaining momentum in the UK and the company law system is incorporating required changes so that companies can carry out their social responsibility. UK company law system is considered as an over-complicated system which has a blend of both modern and radicalism. All the UK listed companies have to comply with the combined code and they have to publish the Turnbull report. This report ensures that the company will manage its non-financial risks and it will pay due respect toward environmental, social and ethical factors along with its main business practice. The UK government always tried to maintain a balance between shareholders interest and this view was clearly reflected in the white paper that provides a guideline which the companies have to follow. A government of the UK has always supported the id ea that the duty of the director of a company has to be codified and the new director should gain an introductory idea regarding the duty toward society. After considering all the factors into account, the UK government had introduced certain amendments like draft clauses, volume II- Schedule II, 2 (b) which was a step toward modernizing the company's lawyer. Different thinkers have the different view regarding capitalism and CSR. The term corporate was well defined by Melvin Aron Eisenberg in the following fashion â€Å"the business corporation is an instrument through which capital is assembled for the activities of producing and distributing goods and services and making the investment. The business corporation should have as its objective the conduct of such activities with a view to enhancing the corporation's profit and the gain of the corporation’s owners.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Stricter Penalties on First-Time Drunk Driving Offenders Essay Example for Free

Stricter Penalties on First-Time Drunk Driving Offenders Essay According to a study done by Mothers Against Drunk Driving, one in three Americans will be in an accident involving a drunk driver during their lifetime (Phong). Something needs to be done to address this matter considering the frequency of these accidents, the fatality of many of these accidents, and the accessibility of alcohol in today’s culture. An increase in penalties for first time offenders could significantly lower this statistic by encouraging drivers to not repeat their offense. Understandably, some people make mistakes and can correct them after their first offense. However, a larger number of people repeat this offense and are found driving under the influence or intoxicated after their first offense. Stricter penalties and punishments should be established for first time offenders because most drivers are inclined to repeat their offense, drunk drivers impact other people, and the current laws are ineffective. Stricter penalties need to be established to show drivers the importance of driving sober. First time offenders are incredibly likely to drive drunk again simply because they think they can get away with it. According to various studies, first-time drunk driving offenders are on the road anywhere from 88 to 500 times before they are caught in the act of driving drunk (Mejeur). To drunk drivers, it is worth driving drunk and running the risk of getting caught because they believe the chances of them getting arrested are close to none. This mindset needs to be changed completely. Intoxicated drivers need to understand that it is not worth the risk of driving under the influence. When deciding whether or not to hit the road under the influence, the punishments need to out weigh the benefits of driving intoxicated in the drivers’ mind. Mejeur reveals in another article that â€Å"5% of alcohol related fatal crashes involved drivers with more that 5 previous DWI (driving while intoxicated) arrests† (9). This means their first five arrests for driving under the influence did not deter them. Stricter penalties will encourage drivers to choose not to repeat their actions. Finally, â€Å"39% of the country’s drunk driving cases involved second time offenders, and 11% involved third and fourth time offenders† (Phong). Even after being convicted of a drunk driving charge, 50% of these drivers chose to drive on the roads drunk, endangering thousands of people. Clearly the legal system is not efficient in discouraging drunk driving after a driver’s first offense. This just shows that most first-time drunk driving offenders choose to drive under the influence of alcohol multiple times before getting caught, and even after, they choose to continue this incredibly dangerous behavior. Stricter penalties will deter drivers from getting behind the wheel under the influence. Since the actions of drunk drivers not only affect themselves, but they also affect others, there need to be more severe punishments for drunk drivers. In just 2004, 320 people were killed by drunk drivers every week, which is â€Å"roughly the equivalent of a weekly plane crash killing everyone on board. If that were the case, no one would fly and the public would demand change† (Savage). Many people are killed by drunk drivers, but the public has become so accustomed to hearing about drunk driving accidents, that no ones seeks to change this, because it has become the norm. The truth is that the number of people killed by drunk drivers has increased since then, yet there has been little change. When a drunk driver takes a person’s life, that person’s family must live with that decision the drunk driver made to get behind the wheel, for the rest of their life. When drivers drink and drive, they put thousands and thousands of people in danger. Their actions reach much father than they even realize. Of children ages 14 and under who died in a car accident last year, in 16% of these accidents had alcohol as a factor (Messenger 2). These are innocent children who find themselves either in the car with a drunk driver, or the victim of an accident with another drunk driver. If penalties were stronger for first time offenders, the number of innocent children whose lives are taken would drop. There are so many sad stories of people loosing loved ones to the poor choices of drunk drivers. In a story published by The Washington Post, Michael Pangle was arrested in 2002 for drunk driving and was released to the custody of a friend that same night. His friend drove him to his car where he went to another bar, got behind the wheel, and got into an accident killing himself and another driver; a father of three on his way home (Phong 3). Not only did Pangle lose his life, but he also took the life of a father of three; a husband to their mother. The family will have to live with this loss the rest of their life. The actions of drunk drivers can affect innocent people for the rest of their life. Laws need to be made to try and prevent this irresponsible behavior. The final reason to enforce stricter penalties is that the penalties in place now have little to no affect on the drivers and often fail to do any justice. Pam Louwagie found that ? of drivers pulled over by a police officer decline to take a breath test which results in a suspended license. Failing the test means losing your license, facing a drunk driving conviction, fines, and potentially jail time. Drivers’ auto insurance jumps, jobs can be in jeopardy because they now have a prior offense on their record (3). The choice is clear for a driver pulled over that has been accused of drunk driving. The penalties for refusing the test are a lot less severe than taking the test and failing. According to findings by Joe Mahr, â€Å"When drivers refuse to take a breathalyzer test, the law allows them to appeal the one-year suspension in civil court. But most prosecutors bargain away the suspensions as part of plea deals in criminal DWI cases. The end result: Defendants admit to drunk driving and don’t miss one day of driving† (2). It is evident that drunk drivers have found a way around the legal system. It should not be that easy for drunk drivers to get off a charge and be allowed to continue driving on the roads. Even after putting so many people in danger, including themselves. Stricter penalties are a necessity. Another weakness of the legal system is at the trial and sentencing phase. If offenders do not show up for a trial, a warrant is issued. However, people on warrants are rarely tracked down unless they are involved in another crime (Mahr 2). They can potentially avoid prosecution indefinitely. Many offenders know how to work the system to their advantage. The legal projection and punishments of drunk drivers needs to be reevaluated. Too many drunk drivers get out of being convicted of DWIs or DUIs and can continue to drive drunk, endangering many people. Since most drunk drivers are inclined to repeat their offense, the actions of drunk drivers affect on others, and current laws are ineffective, stricter punishments need to be established. The number of fatalities as a result of drunk driving is only going to increase if no action is taken, causing pain to thousands and thousands of people. This irresponsible act needs to be addressed because drunk drivers continue to get behind the wheel everyday with no regard for the law or those they put in danger. By demanding change and encouraging stricter punishments for first time drunk driving offenders, the number of fatalities will decrease and drunk driving will become less of a problem all across the nation.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Teaching Listening Skills In The Classroom English Language Essay

Teaching Listening Skills In The Classroom English Language Essay Introduction Because of requiring quality for teaching students, especially teaching listening skills in the classroom, assorted schools, colleges, and universities have tried to look for good strategies (Teaching listening skills), for this area is the most complicated to teach students, and then this issue has developed into a good subject for teachers and those institutions to be concerned about. On the other hand, these concerns are dealt with many books and journal articles with new strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom these days. In online publication date: 29 July 2010 article written by Dorothy R. and Sid T. states Most teachers are aware that students listening skills are not what they once were. Our classrooms are filled with students who either do not listen or listen with their ears but not with their brains. (Dorothy R. Sid T. (2010, july 29). 56, 310-311). Instead, many more authors or writers in numerous books and journal articles can respond to this issue with out any hesitation. In order to answer this issue, authors and other teachers assert that copious strategies in abundant books and articles are much better than only one.Penny contends that in principle, the objective of listening comprehension in the classroom is that students should learn to function successfully in real-life listening is(Penny 1996, p 105).Moreover, a statement states that there is no one way of doing a listening skills lesson- it depends on such factors as the aim, the text type, the level of the students, etc.(Roger, Diane, Steve 1983, p89). Hence, studies of the strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom according to various references- both books and journal articles- embrace a variety of techniques and strategies. I, however, now extract one of those to outline this. Depending on the journal article written by Dorothy R. and Sid T., it reveals that there are several ways of teaching listening skills in the classroom effectively (Dorothy R. Sid T. (2010, july 29). 56, 310-311). First, Call attention to careful listening will heighten childrens awareness of the importance of the skill. An oral check of student responses will call immediate attention to errors and eliminate paper checking for the teachers. Second, Taped selections can be played to students, followed by questions about their content. Questions that encourage beneficial listening skills include those that ask about cause and effect, sequence, main ideas, terminology, drawing conclusion, and the names of the main characters. In addition, Mrs. King a third-grade teacher in the Huntsville, Texas public school system starts the school year by telling the students that her very quiet voice is her teaching voice. She does not yell, and she insists on politeness speaking only with permission and not talking when others are speaking. As a result of this and other techniques, the noise level in her classroom is always low. Finally, exercises in careful listening habits are being learned by our television- oriented young people (Dorothy R. King (2010, july 29). 56, 310-311). These diverse approaches have been applied to peruse good strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom, and how much the students understand those. This proof is shown that most of the students in listening class demand many strategies for improving their listening skills. Only studies, nevertheless, of Dorothy R. Sid T. are not sufficient for teaching listening skills in the classroom, for one skill requires a variety of strategies or techniques in order that instructors are convenient to impart knowledge to students effectively. Therefore, Roger, Diane, and Steve state that there is no one way of doing a listening skills lesson it depends on such factors as the aim, the text type, and the level of the students, etc.( Roger, Diane, and Steve 1983). Besides, the shortage of searching more information related to the strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom is deplorable because it is advantageous to our skills (Teaching as career). Not only do you believe in one authors documents, but you also try to search the work of arts of others in order to have new ideas or techniques to teach the students both effectively and successfully. In conclusion, this study attempted to donate the knowledge base related to teaching listening skills by probing as many strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom as possible to make sure that students are contented to accept those effectively. In order to apprehend this research clearly, you are asked a few questions as follows: 1. What are the strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom? 2. With what benefits do they provide you? 3. How do these strategies respond to the students in the classroom and the real world? Annotated Bibliography 1. Æ’ËÅ" King, D. R Womack, S. T. (2010, july 29). Strategies for Teaching Listening Skills. The Clearing House: A Journal Of Education Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 56, 310- 311. Dorothy R and Sid T., in this journal article, show off teachers difficulty in teaching students listening skills because theirs are not what they once were, and the classrooms are filled with the students who do not pay attention to teachers explanation (Teaching listening skills). When listening, they use only their ears but not the brains. Therefore, the purpose of this article is focused on several strategies which can help teachers teach listening skills in the classroom successfully. Even though this article is not the most perfect one, it can provide good methods for dealing with this issue and my research, especially the strategies for teaching listening skills in the classroom, and then this tool is used to conduct the next one in general classes. Finally it is also able to help me to apply all the strategies in my study in order to improve the skills as teacher of English in the future. 2.Æ’ËÅ" Scrivener, J. (1994). Tearning Teaching. Great Britain: Macmillan Jim, in this book, offers several procedures and strategies that can help students improve their listening skills, such as task-based listening, the task feedback circle, how we listen, and listening ideas, which are effective to upgrade students listening skills in the classroom; also, it is really significant to the study because this research (Teaching listening skills in the classroom) is applied to the real world. This book also provides a great deal of information related to teaching listening skills for research, particularly the key points. Moreover these strategies can help many researchers and learners create more methods to conduct next research effectively. Last of all, they do assist me to use the key concepts of these strategies in my study successfully, and I also have a good opportunity to upgrade my knowledge teaching as career. 3.Æ’ËÅ" Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. China: Oxford University Press. In this book (tasks, listening comprehension SLA), Rod shows that this chapter based on listening tasks has contributed to theory (as it concerns both listening and language acquisition), research methodology, and language pedagogy. These three key terms are really crucial to the research related to teaching listening skills; for example, Academic listening task research has shown that when learners lack relevant schemata their ability to take notes and comprehend a lecture suffers. Thus Rod offers a promising tool for investigating the micro processes involved in comprehending and language acquisition. These strategies are very much valuable for the study since it not only focuses on the classroom teaching but also concentrates on learners in general, and this task too is very useful to my study because it is the guideline to achieve either the next new research or the teaching listening skills in the classroom. 4. Æ’ËÅ" Ur, P. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press Penny, in this book (Chapter 8: Teaching listening, Unit one), teaches about Real-life listening in the classroom. In the unit, he indicates three main steps to teach listening skills, such as Guidelines, Practical classroom application, and Implementing the guidelines: some specific practical implications. These key points are very essential, for they can make teaching listening in the classroom effective and beneficial. Furthermore it is able to provide a lot of information and new strategies to my study, which relates to the teaching listening research. Therefore this research can be applied not only in my classroom but also in the real world. 5. Æ’ËÅ" Pearse, E. Davies, P. (2000). Success in English Teaching. New York, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. In this book, Paul and Eric provide the strategies for teaching listening skills; that is, the strategies generally recommended are: pre-listening, while-listening, and post-listening, which are absolutely useful to draw students attention on teaching listening class effectively. In addition this book classifies listening text in terms of learner control and some more activities that can help both teachers and learners achieve the objectives during their processes. All the strategies can be applied to all teaching listening classrooms not only one class as they are absolutely practical to all learners, in particular they are very crucial to my research study, for my topic is related to this area, and it can assist me to apply the strategies in the real classroom teaching. 6. Æ’ËÅ" Gower, R., Phillips, D., Walters, S. (1983). Teaching Practice Handbook. China: Macmillian,Heinemann. Roger, Diane, and Steve, in this book, raise good strategies related to the skills how to improve students listening skills, which help the students find it easier to embrace this area. In addition they say that there is no one way of doing listening skills lesson it depends on such factors as the aim, the text type, and the level of the students, etc. and they also give the example involving in guidelines on one way of conducting a listening skills lesson which is divided into three sections before listening, first listening, and second listening; i.e. all these are included with its feedback too. These strategies are applied to implement classroom teaching, in particular these key points used to do the survey on students understanding of listening skills effectively. They will also help me to conduct the authentic research on my field- teaching as career successfully. 7. Æ’ËÅ" Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. China: Oxford University Press. In this book, Tricia tells a lot about the strategies related to teaching listening skills in the classroom. First he talks about the role of listening in the ELT curriculum, such as pre-listening task and listening note taking, which can be assumed that listening ability will develop automatically through exposure to the language and through practice of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Next he shows what we know about listening process bottom-up processes and top-down processes in listening, which can be applied with real knowledge of learners. Furthermore he also indicates the purpose of listening; i.e. it refers to conversation of a personal kind in which the listening is reciprocal or participatory and so on, especially designing listening activities for the classroom, which is really vital to the academic course because I need this for my teaching listening classroom. All these key strategies will make my research study more and more advanced as teacher of English. 8. Æ’ËÅ" Peterson, P. W. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. (M. C. Murcia, Ed.) the USA. Pat W., in this book, indicates a few prompts related to the strategies for listening skills. First he shows the types of strategies specific to listening comprehension, such as categories of metacognitive, cognitive, and socioaffective strategies, which are very important to the study because each has a various function in teaching listening methods. Next, he spots a development view of listening skills. In this section he focuses on profile of the beginning, intermediate, and advanced-level student in listening good strategies which can be segregated for teaching in each class. Moreover he sets the goals for them Bottom-up and Top-down processing, Goals and exercise types, and beginning, Intermediate, advanced-level learners which can make teachers easy to teach them successfully. All these strategies are valuable to the study, for they are classified differently. I hope that these will not only help me teach my students in the class but also be helpful to my MA research program . 9. Æ’ËÅ" Hadfiekd, Jill Charles. (2008). introduction to teaching English. Portugal: Oxford University Press. In this book, Jill and Charles show the explanation to the stages of a listening lesson set up as follows: First he talks about before a listening Lead-in method engages learners interest, introduce the topic and context, activate learners background knowledge, help the learners to predict what the speakers might say, and introduce some key words and expression; also, Language focus introduces some key vocabulary, and other words. Second it is about during a listening lesson; that is, Tasks show that you should aim to repeat the listening several times with a series of listening tasks. Finally it is about after a listening lesson; i.e. Language focus concentrates on some of the language in the text, such as new vocabulary, and Transfer uses the listening and the language work as the basis for work in a different skill. These strategies are really practical to the study. Even though they are not the perfect ones, they show off good advantages to teachers in order to implement these t echniques in the classroom successfully. Also they will be useful to me because I become a teacher of English and I have to use these as my teaching tools. 10. Æ’ËÅ" Fernandez-Toro, M. (2005). The role of paired Listening in L2 listening instruction. Language Learning Journal, 31, 3-8. Maria, in this journal article, mentions much of the difficulty related to the fact that listening processes cannot be easily observed and shown because they all take place inside t he listeners mind. She, however, indicates that paired listening offers a number of potential benefits, both as a diagnostic tool and as a valid learning exercise in itself. Moreover, this research is also profitable for the study, for the writer shows not only the problem to the skills but also the good methods applied to deal with its issues. Thus, this article is really useful to my research because I can use these strategies to operationalize all good points in my own study.