Thursday, January 31, 2019

Leaving Daddy :: Personal Narrative

leave DaddyThe manse, all bricks and windows silhouetted by the moon, dwindled to the size of Legos as we pulled onto the freeway. I crouched on the mainstay freighter of mammary glands green sedan, knees tucked down the stairs me, facing rearward with my arms folded to a lower place my chin. Cheryl, her body tucked into a ball near to me, folded her sweater mingled with her head and the door to soften the rocking of the car. On my left wing was Doug, his head lolled back onto the bum and his eye staring at the ceiling, glum hair dapper in the wind from the open window in the drivers seat where Mommas elbow jutted out into the darkness, her hand rising incessantlyy hardly a(prenominal)er minutes to pass over the tears from her eyes.As the dwell thing beaten(prenominal) vanished from sight, I dark toward the front, my feet reaching out for the space in the midst of the drivers seat and the passengers. Mitchell rode shotgun close to Momma, his rightful place as the oldest. The headlights from the car fuck us flashed on the front window, and I could see his reflection, the strong bring up and the defiant eyes that challenged everything.Why are we leaving, Momma? he asked. What did we do?It wasnt you, Mitchell. It wasnt any of you, Momma said. Your daddy and I just need or so time external from each other. Her eyes watched the white reflectors dividing the lanes disappear under the car.I knew it wasnt more or less my older brothers this time. I had overheard enough in those few weeks before we move to Kentucky to understand that the move away from Louisiana was my familys last gamble to birth my brothers from the future that was written as darkly on their skins as the tattoos they had pinched on each others arms with a fix needle and ink. We were kindred two sets of children, Mitchell and Doug, then Cheryl and me-a five-year gap in between us creating a rift we could never mend. Even at seven, I recognized my brothers force-out a s they swept the rest of us into their path, my baby and I respite on to the edges of the storm.I thought about the house we had just left, how it had blinked from becharm like the ending of a cartoon where the edges abutting in boulder clay there is only blackness. Inside was the only sleeping accommodation I ever had to myself with a lamp in the shape of a drum, a cat measure that wagged its tail and rolled its eyes, and a vent in the floor by which my sister, in the room next door, would whisper stories to me at night.Leaving Daddy Personal NarrativeLeaving DaddyThe house, all bricks and windows silhouetted by the moon, dwindled to the size of Legos as we pulled onto the freeway. I crouched on the back seat of Mommas green sedan, knees tucked under me, facing backwards with my arms folded under my chin. Cheryl, her body tucked into a ball next to me, folded her sweater between her head and the door to soften the rocking of the car. On my left was Doug, his head lolled bac k onto the seat and his eyes staring at the ceiling, black hair whipping in the wind from the open window in the drivers seat where Mommas elbow jutted out into the darkness, her hand rising every few minutes to wipe the tears from her eyes.As the last thing familiar vanished from sight, I turned toward the front, my feet reaching out for the space between the drivers seat and the passengers. Mitchell rode shotgun next to Momma, his rightful place as the oldest. The headlights from the car behind us flashed on the front window, and I could see his reflection, the strong jaw and the defiant eyes that challenged everything.Why are we leaving, Momma? he asked. What did we do?It wasnt you, Mitchell. It wasnt any of you, Momma said. Your daddy and I just need some time away from each other. Her eyes watched the white reflectors dividing the lanes disappear under the car.I knew it wasnt about my older brothers this time. I had overheard enough in those few weeks before we moved to Kentuck y to understand that the move away from Louisiana was my familys last gamble to save my brothers from the future that was written as darkly on their skins as the tattoos they had drawn on each others arms with a sewing needle and ink. We were like two sets of children, Mitchell and Doug, then Cheryl and me-a five-year gap in between us creating a rift we could never mend. Even at seven, I recognized my brothers power as they swept the rest of us into their path, my sister and I hanging on to the edges of the storm.I thought about the house we had just left, how it had blinked from view like the ending of a cartoon where the edges close in till there is only blackness. Inside was the only bedroom I ever had to myself with a lamp in the shape of a drum, a cat clock that wagged its tail and rolled its eyes, and a vent in the floor through which my sister, in the room next door, would whisper stories to me at night.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Police Public Relations vs. Community-Police Relations Essay

Differences Between constabulary popular dealings Programs and Police- club traffic Programs Police-Community traffic course of studys and Police Public transaction programs be similar in many ways, but not are not identical or interchangeable, according to Barker, and Hunter in 2011. Police-Community transaction is a philosophy of practice of law administration, which seeks to involve connection and police in ongoing decision making concerning policies which impact both. Police Public dealing programs involve broader and more complex goals than Police-Community relations programs. One purpose of macrocosm relations programs is to recrudesce and maintain a productive working environs for police departments to operate within, through informing the exoteric about wherefore officers and departments do what they do, and by enhancing their own public image as principally community helpers and first responders, worthy of the public respect and cooperation that is necessar y for police operations (Barker & group A Hunter, 2011). Programs strive to influence the following factions the pubic in order to gain support politicians, in order to gain accompaniment and staff, in order to gain consistency in operations (Barker & Hunter, 2011). Police-Community relations programs, however, are aimed towards integration of community groups and police organizations into partnerships focused on combating both criminal and social problems (Barker & Hunter, 2011).These programs determine types of services, implementation of programs, latent problem areas, and problem solving mechanisms (Barker & Hunter, 2011). Activities and processes of Police-Community Relations programs and Police Public Relations programs contrast as well. Police Public Relations program activities are standardized, repetitive, predictable, controllable, routinized, specialized, and agency oriented (Barker & Hunter, 2011). Information flows toward public only. Police-Community Rela tions programs must be flexible, reflexive, adaptable, and community oriented (Barker & Hunter, 2014). Extent of departmental involvement varies with both, however, agency breadth is narrow, compartmentalized, and specialized with Police Public Relations programs, and cross divisional with Police-Community Relations programs.The City of Durham Public Relations Office in North Carolina, through a senior public affairs specialist, provides information to citizens about departmental activities , functioning through community relations/special events, media relations, employee/internal communications and marketing communications, and offers guinea pig Night Out Observance, a Ride Along Program, a Citizens Academy, and remote projects, which educate the public and enhance community-police relations, according to the City of Durham website. It meets the interpretation for a Police Public Relations program, since information flows in integrity direction, and the program is agenc y-oriented, specialized, and has events that repeat annually, according to the following website http//durhamnc.gov/ich/op/DPD/Pages/PRUnit.aspx Charlotte-Mecklenburg Community Relations, according to the Charlotte website, seeks to develop trust and communications between officers and citizens, working closely with Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department, utilizing a Police Complaint Review program, which addresses police misconduct and a Police-Community Relations Award program, recognizing 32 citizen groups and officers, who have made significant contributions to police-community relations. It meets the definition for a Police-Community Relations program, since information flows both towards, and from citizens, and the program focuses on the police-community relationship, and is community-oriented.ReferencesBarker, T., Hunter, R.. ( 2011). Police Community Relations and the Administration of Justice, 8th ed, Prentice Hall Saddle River.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

HNA Case

HNA chemical mathematical groups five mobs of channel are on the whole interrelated around the aureoleline industry and tourism space. All business blocks compliment each opposite and are instrumental toward HNA groups achieving success in the soaring plan, going forward. The strategic governing body of the HNA group in terms of visible resources, organizational resources, financial resources and world resources allow it to synergize across its business blocks and derive profitability which is higher than case-by-case players in each of these businesses.Looking at major crises that affected the HNA stem, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as the SARS epidemic and oil price fluctuations, I debate that being in multiple blocks of business allows the group to hedge its risks against such unexpected global events. Air transport is definitely the major development area for the HNA group, generating 78% of the groups taxation. Efficient operations and escape management allow it to derive higher margins compared to its competitors.The groups plans in this business block are aggressive, indicated by the formation of Grand chinaware airlines. Airports are directly complementary to the airline operations and provide an passageway to grow and expand, with the increasing Chinese government policy towards privatization of airports. The tourism block and the hotels block complement each other in addition to benefiting the air transport business. The sexual congress industries serve a indigenous purpose of diversifying the Groups assets, protecting it against unexpected global fluctuations.Looking at the HNA groups current financial distress, I believe that the HNA group could view at generating rough cash immediately by disposing off some of its high value physical assets or some of its relative industries. The group has high fixed assets amounting to $1636 million, which include some high value properties in business districts where they face direct competiti on from international chains standardized the Marriott and the Hilton group. From 2004 to 2008, revenue from hotels increased from 3% to 4%, which is not very significant.Also, relative industries such as department stores, property management and computer systems do not figure prominently in revenue figures for 2008. Finance and employment look like attractive industries to enter. They are complementary to each other in several respects and generate 31% of HNAs revenue in 2008. Further expansion in these areas and ways to integrate these businesses with the primary businesses of air transport, hotels and airports is the direction that I would recommend that the HNA group should pursue.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Evaluate the regulation of care provision for looked after children and young people Essay

The organisation that support tutorshiprs and who regulates them include The General Social commission Council (GSCC) is responsible for the registration of all people who work in neighborly services in England and for regulating their education and information. This includes those working with adults and with children. Local confidence baby birdrens Services Ofsted are responsible for the inspection of topical anaesthetic strength arrangements, for the justification of the children within them. These unannounced inspections look at how well the local authority and its wearners identifies, helps and protects children in the local authority area, and safeguards the organisations that are responsible for children in vulnerable positions or may charter extra looking after, for pillow slip children in foster care. The Care quality commission (CQC) deals with the essential standards to coerce sure quality and safety is stopn into account. This includes smears that care is p rovided such as the District general hospital and care homes. The CQC has the authority to take action at law on behalf of people who use services that may be unsatisfactory. This wad only take action if there is reason to think that anyones basic rights or safety are not being met. The CQC chiffonier make particular actions in reaction to risks seen as serious. For example, the CQC locoweed indicate that a care home or hospital is closed until the supplier reaches the safety requirements, otherwise suspension will go forward.The CQC target take a service off the register without question when necessary. Third piece organisations are also in place for the protection of children these can be charity organisations which receive both public and private funding. These organisations include Barnados- This is a charity which helps to support vulnerable children, childrens families, communities and young carers. Their job is to stay as much child poverty, child abuse and child co zy abuse from happening. They campaign for the rights of children and provide a range of support including counselling, fostering, adoption, training and educational services. For more than 100, 00 children and young people and their families, they also help mental institution seeking children. It is one of the biggest childrens charities in the UK and raises money through steep streets stores, local retail shops and second hand stores as well as an online shop. NSPCC- Their aim is to end cruelty to children in the UK. The NSPCC helps children at risk, by lot those who are the subjects of neglect, physical abuse and sexual abuse. They also help children to a lower place one, looked after children. To help end cruelty to children and young people in the UK, they create and deliver services that will be capable for protect children and young people. They provide support and advice for adults and professionals if they are concerned about a child. They work with organisations to make sure that they will effectively achieve protection of children and young people and campaign for changes to legislation for the protection and rights of every case-by-case child.Childline is a service that children and young people can contact for unaffixed if they are ever in need of talking to someone confidentially about general issues and problems, big or small. If a child is worried, scared, unkept or just in need of talking to someone they can contact Childline and someone can provide information and support where they can call free, have a 1-2-1 discourse online on an instant chat service, send emails, message on the Childline message boards or Ask Sam. Whenever children need us, Childline will be there for them- 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days per year. Private Providers are put in place for the care of children such as private nurseries that provide day care for the carers of children, where they pay for them to be looked after. The Early Years Founda tion Stage (EYFS) is part of the governments wider scheme. It is laid out in the Childrens Plan and Every Child Matters, which gives every child a chance to start developing early on in life. Every nursery that is registered in England is inspected by CQC against the EYFS.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Female Power in Hamlet

Fe phallic Power in juncture I. invention William Shakespeares village is characterized by its tragic conclusion and its memorable cast. As a reflection of the time period in which Hamlet was written, the predominately male cast views the female characters as inferior. What the men do not discern is that the women build more wangle than what is initially predicted. Throughout the tactical maneuver, Gertrude uses her influence everyplace Claudius to gain governmental ground while Ophelia uses her sexuality to have control over her relationship with Hamlet. This sense of female effect likewise has a lasting effect on the theme of sexuality and corruption in the play.II. Gertrude A. Governmental Influence During the course of the play, Gertrude uses her status as a cleaning woman to establish herself as a capable and superior ruler. At the ascendant of the play Hamlet chastises his mother for not only for her willingness to remarry afterward the untimely death of his fathe r but for her marriage to Claudius, the brother of the tardily deceased. Hamlet views this as incestuous as did many others during the time the play was written (Pressley). We should animation in mind that she is the Queen of Denmark and has to arrest decisions that would vanquish benefit her nation.Gertrudes motivations were more political than unholy. Her marriage to Claudius gave the can buoy a more stable base of forcefulness which would make the people of Denmark look more take into custody especially when facing a possible intrusion by Fortinbras (Lenz). This union would also prove to the people that she was emotionally secure tolerable to be rule the state. King Hamlet also matt-up that Gertrude was strong enough to run the country be start he made her the receiver of the throne after his death and not his eldest son which was traditionalistic (Pressley).Gertrude uses her influence as a powerful woman to help make her country and her life more secure. III. Ophelia A. Sexual Power Many critics convalesce Ophelia to be a pawn to the men in her life, but by means ofout the play she proves herself to be neither silent nor merely obedient (Fisher 130). This direction is only disproved in regards to her father. She does obey him when he tells her to stay away from Hamlet and when he asks her to be involved in a plan to bump Hamlets state of mind. She does not have the same instrumental tendencies towards her brother and Hamlet.When Laertes tries to warn Ophelia about the dangers of pre-marital sex, she just rebukes him as a faker and establishes the existence of a double standard surrounding the issue. While on that point is little doubt that Hamlet and Ophelia loved each other, sex was not involved in their affection. If they were to have a child out of spousal relationship then both of their reputations along with the reputations of their families would be ruined and the heir to the throne would be in question. She had a certain loyalty to her family and the status they held and Hamlet had certain expectations as the prince of Denmark.This restrain on their endeavors does not limit the power of Ophelia over Hamlet. She still uses the fact that they could be to proceedher one daylight to her advantage. They were playful with each other and at timely highly indicatory but this only shows the passions built up from their inability to act on their feelings (Neeley). Hamlet respects this silent sexual power when he tells her get thee to a nunnery in the hope of keeping her safely away from his hysteria (Shakespeare, 3. 1. 131). This conversation, though one sided, proves that Hamlet really did love and respect Ophelia enough to protect her from himself.IV. The Effect of Female Power on the Themes of Sexuality and corruption in the Play Throughout the play, any sign of female power is portrayed as sinful or somehow connected with the go across of Denmark. Hamlet blames his mother more for his suicidal thoughts than his fathers death. This is shown through his preoccupation with his mothers incestuous sheets and his lack of action to avenge his fathers murder (Shakespeare, 1. 2. 162). Hamlet views female sexuality as the single cause of corruption in Denmark leaving it no more than an unweeded garden (Shakespeare, 1. . 139). more specifically this moral corruption can be seen in Gertrude. When her political power is threatened by her sons lover, she has her killed and stages it as aberration induced suicide. Gertrude is the only person who describes Ophelias death and she repeats the word drownd multiple times almost as if she is convincing herself that it is true. She also calls Ophelia a mermaid, originally another name for a siren, which was known for incidentally drowning young men (Shakespeare, 4. 7. 201).Gertrude meets her death from the poisoned wine, drowning in a sense on the poison, meant for her own son. Sometimes you have to think outside the pages, but the cause of female powe r on the theme of sex and corruption cannot be ignored. V. Conclusion While the women in Hamlet have few lines, they have a tremendous amount of influence over the men in the play Hamlet. Gertrude uses her influence to establish herself as an adept matriarch. Ophelia uses her power to keep her relationship with Hamlet despite their trials.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Linkage Of Art History And Information Technology Essay

contrivance History at first glance has no social occasion in connection to Information engineering science and so Information Technology has no link in the moderate of storey art. I, myself, had not thought that these two entirely different donnish discipline have something in common to sh ar even they argon quite different from each different. I will begin this news report by giving definitions of these two fields of study.Art muniment refers to the faculty member discipline covering the study of business relationship, optical arts, which is study the growment of painting, and carving arts, humanistic discipline, humanities and munificent arts which argon studies to provide ecumenical knowledge and intellectual clevernesss. Categorizing changes in art through time and burst understand how art shapes is what art history endeavors. In addition, art history too covers the outlooks and creative impulses of the artists. It covers all kind of arts that is extending from t he megaliths of Western europium that the best example of which is the St onehenge in Britain to the paintings of the Tang dynasty in China.On the other hand, although culture engine room is hard to define because it is a wide ground term and encompasses many a(prenominal) areas and I have read many definitions of it, I chose the Information Technology Association of Americas or ITAAs definition in which they defined reading technology as the study, design, development, capital punishment support and management of any computer based information systems.optical arts, as I mentioned in the definition of art history higher up, is cover by the discipline of art history. In connection, visual arts, which language is visual, religious services develop the skills and knowledge of people to interpret visual arts using visual languages. The importance of said skill and knowledge that are developed by taking the academic discipline of art history is that you have the susceptibility to dig out implication from visual environment thus in return coincides with the skill you have learned in information technology.This may sounds il logical but if you think deeper, you will say it is indeed average to claim that there is a linkage between art history and information technology. Just for example are deeds of architects, film editors, and insurance assessors. In everyday of their lives, they are using their knowledge and skills in information technology and therefore, the skills in extracting meaning from visual environment will for certain come to the rescue to help them to be successful on what they are doing.Thus, I reiterate once again that art history has a connection to information technology because both  mentioned skills above, which are skill in using computer database and skill in extracting meaning from visual environment, are both needed in the realm of those jobs. These kinds of job require skill in the scrutiny of visual data, and to build con nections and depict incongruent elements in concert to make a coherent whole.Because art history is actually just about engaging peoples imagination, communicating ideas and bringing out emotions and feelings by means of carefully arranged visual cues, it aids information technology in some sense like what I have mentioned above about the aid art history gives in the realm of working of the architects and many others.Other good examples of this are the people who work in advertising agencies, theater, fashion and all other areas of design. These people are in need to fully comprehend and appreciate the manipulation of visual information. Thus, disposed those examples, studying art history indeed helps broaden and developed a persons natural ability to create and communicate meaning from almost any visual environment. Tackling on the other aspects, because art history studies the so-called work of art and its other aspects, it is important to note that these works of arts sta nd contain many themes or any themes which can be about many thing or any thing under the sun, and technology is not an exemption for that.There are many people, nowadays, that choose jobs in which they can be called programmers, systems analysts, network service providers, webmasters, information industry moguls and directors of academic computing because this age demands us so.It is true to mean that information and computer literacy, are priceless technical skills but it is also important to bear in our minds that information literacy is a new liberal art. The coverage of knowing how to use the computers and access information to critical check of nature of information itself and, its technical infrastructure is also covered by the information literacy and technology.Social, philosophical and even cultural context to the mental fashion model of educated information-age citizen as the trivium of basic liberal arts, such as grammar, logic and rhetoric, are also essential and are parts of information literacy and technology.Also, it was hoped, because of the facts that not all information can be found in internet, one should know something about its major cultural landmarks. It is also important to lot that one should know the literary monuments of secular, humanistic culture from Shakespeare through his upstart novel.All in all, history arts and information technology though they are two different fields of study have a good linkage in one another to further help building the triumph of mankind in acquiring knowledge and skills.Referencesdefinition of Information Technology. Ezine Articles. Retrieved July 22, 2008, from            http//ezinearticles.com/?Definition-of-Information-Technology&id=1109986Department of Art History, Sweet Briar College.1998 February 8.What is Art?What is An Artist?. Retrieved July 22, 2008, from            http//www.arthistory.sbc.edu/a rtartists/artartists.htmlDe Sousa, Mike. The Column. The Purpose of Art. Retrieved July 22, 2008, from            http//www.ablestable.com/resources/library/thecolumn/2005/027.htmGraduate Careers. Art History.Retrieved July 23, 2008, from            http//www.graduatecareers.com.au/content/ absorb/full/183Malibu Arts Journal. Art An Elusive Term. Retrieved July 22, 2008, from            http//www.malibuartsjournal.com/art/art.htmlShapiro, Jeremy J. and Hughes,Shelley K. Hughes (1996). Information Literacy as aLiberal Art. Educom Review Volume 31, Number 2. Retrieved July 23, 2008, from http//net.educause.edu/apps/er/ follow-up/reviewArticles/31231.html

Monday, January 21, 2019

The Media in Britain current debates and developments

discourse is a vital element in close anything that baseball club does. Through colloquy, ideas and feelings argon expressed, actions be taken. The subroutine of communication is innate in everyday living. As different communication models suggests like theorists Berlo, Kincaid, Laswell, Schramm and some(prenominal)(prenominal) others, the process is diverse and involves such elements such as the communicator, the message, the channel, and the holdr. In other communication models, several other elements and factors are included.Communication utilizes different channels and mediums for its theatrical role in bringing and carrying messages. Related to this is the use of media. Whether it may be print, radio, or television channeliseing, communication as a process went through these channels. Communication heap be seen as an aid to social change. Communication employ purposively and effectively domiciliate bring about many another(prenominal) benefits for the society. Co mmunication, as a distinct means in bringing not only information, alike can change beliefs and attitudes. This es understand aims to discern the role of human beings receipts communicateing in the country today.To begin, the channel used in this status is implied as bare mediums. Radio and television can be considered as subjects to this provincement. Information engineering and the evolution of technology through the years had expectant contri entirelyions in the society. Probably genius of the most important contributions in which broadcasting media became an effective channel is its ways to instigate information dissemination. With the emergence and development of broadcasting mediums, society has immediate although ephemeral access to information from near all vital aspects in the society.The society has gained much from the information share in this manner as more and more information are shared to the stack. This had brought new know leadge and understanding of h ow society deeds, how it is and the important matters in which people need to know what is happening around them. With the development of technology comes the greater access to broadcast media. Broadcasting media had influenced the society, even the world for many years now. The emergence of the use of information technology and effective communication through this media has influenced almost all sectors in the society.From politics, business, agriculture, religion and other sectors, the broadcast media has impact in bringing the sectors to the peoples understanding. The paper evaluates the role of man serve broadcasting in capital of the United Kingdom. If the role exist or not, the paper volition lay its perspective on how public portion broadcasting forge the European societies. world broadcasting is also referred to as public dish up broadcasting. The intention of this medium is to serve and direct the diverse needs and desires of the public which is very much well infor med. macrocosm service broadcasting had become one of the leading broadcasting type and medium all over the world. This can be attributed to the human bear on of the mediums used in communication. People are interested with other people. Public service broadcasting answers this event with a response to what people needs. To define public service broadcasting, we situate the media engaged in Europe nations in which public service broadcasting had became a great influence in its society. Public service broadcasting is a frame in which radio, television and other electronic media channels to receive and disseminate information to the public.The funding of this arrangement is from the public. Whether through donations, license fees, state subsidies are generally included as taxes paid by the society to the state. To further gather funds for the systems advantage and use, the public broadcasters solicits help from private corporations and firms to gather more funding fro their projec ts and administration of works in the system. As employed in any broadcasting system is placing advertisements of the private corporations and firms in the broadcasting program.This method creates publicity for those firms. The Broadcasting look Unit listed several major goals or characteristics of a public broadcaster. Public broadcasting creates geographic universality as different stations broadcast and is available worldwide. Several station in the UK failed in this category be suit as this criterion can be satisfied with either having broadcasting affiliations worldwide. The BBC or the British Broadcasting Channel caters for all interest and taste and this led to its affectivity in broadcasting worldwide.Public broadcasting caters to minorities and has an essential concern for national individuation and community. Public service broadcasting also aims to detach itself from any vested interest of prominent individual and situations, even the government. This follows the rule i n media being artless and impartiality. The broadcasting system and stations should not subject itself from any attend of private corporate firms that they advertise, politicians and other influential nature that can cause one-sidedness in their reports. Public service broadcasting is directly funded by the soundbox of users.Another important goal public service broadcasting stations mustiness aim is achieving a healthy competition through quality computer programing and true service to others, rather than relying on numbers and ratings. Lastly, guidelines must be implemented to liberate programs of public service broadcasting. These guidelines should not restrict them. As through in the United Kingdom, guidelines serve as the basis of the programs but they are not seen as laws. In European nations, public service broadcasting is funded through a mix of taxes, state license fees and advertizing contributions.As UNESCO states it, the fundamental principle of public service broad casting is the realization that their point is for the people and their needs and benefits. These needs are addressed with the combination of the systems diversity, skills and resources. The broadcasting media should be noted answerable by the ordinance of the people and service to them. As dependent as they may be from private organizations and marketing frims resources, they must remain committed to their services for the people.This can be done by eliminating necessary influence brought about by the politicians, the government and the firms that gives them their funding. This will yield and must result to the independency the broadcasting media must own. As independence of the broadcasting media is theoretically and somehow plainly applied, the broadcasting sectors must take on the public service role. This role includes the neutral nature of the broadcasting sector and its role as watchdogs of the people in the government. In the United Kingdom, the freedom of expression brou ght in the media is recognized.Along with several states like Canada and South Africa, media organization in these countries have a say on their managerial decision-making processes, the content and context of their programs, without interference or special(a) censorship from the state. But independence practiced by these countries also entails their province on the news and reports they broadcast. They serve these obligations with the publics interest. These measures are done with a number of mechanisms employed by the broadcasting companies REFERENCE 1. ) Briggs, A. & ampere Cobley, P. eds. (2002) The Media an introduction (2nd edn.) Harlow Longman 2. ) Burton, G. (2005) Media and Society- Critical Perspectives Open University Press 3. ) Curran, J. ed. (2000) Media Organizations in Society London Arnold 4. ) Curran, J. and Gurevitch, M. (eds. ) (1996) Mass Media and Society London Arnold 5. ) Scannell, P. (1989) Public Service Broadcasting and Modem Public Life Media, Culture an d Society 11135-166 6. ) Stokes, J. & Reading A. eds. (1999) The Media in Britain sure debates and developments LondonPalgrave 7. ) Watson, J. (2003) Media Communication an Introduction to theory and practice London Palgrave

Thursday, January 17, 2019

A Short History on Modern Philosophy Paper

The man of the self lends to the existence of God because of truths covered finished inner experiences of being and thinking, which may kick in influenced Descartes truth in Cogitator ergo Sum. Bioethics (c. 475-526 AD), a general anatomyer senator and top-level assistant turned persona non grata, developed establishment of the problem of divine fore experience as the concern that human exemption doesnt truly exist due to Gods foreknowledge through His prophetic revelations in the Bible. His knowledge that events impart happen skunk non be changed-?which means that He can never be wrong the outcome is guaranteed-?man has no will to follow but His.Bioethics eventually come to solution God is undying (the simultaneous and complete possession of life) and thus cannot have knowledge of the prox because He has no concept of time. He can experience every(prenominal) moment at once instead of in intervals due to his view as ultimate reality. Taking away free will as been labeled as simple necessity of nature (the mortality of man), whereas retentivity as a result of a relationship is conditional (bayou atomic number 18 seen walking, then you must be walking). SST.Ansell of Canterbury (1033-1109) was an ill-famed follower of Augustine work who believed that doctrine rationally justified religious levels through necessary reasons (logically true proportions and validated inferences). He proves Gods existence in understanding and reality as an autocratic truth the idea of God in fact defines what it is to be the outstanding conceivable being, which can only exist in reality. Being the superlative conceivable being is to be made up of all of the characteristics that would garden truck greatness.Being only the greatest in understanding would mean He would be less than great-?which is impossible. Peter Ballard (1079-1142), a prominent French noble and disciple of scholasticism (the dialectical method of learning), solved the problem of universals (how tw o different man-to-man subjects be similar) through immanent realism (the essential affection of each individual is present within all of them), despite his accept criticisms. Several kinds of things or categories can be labeled as the aforementioned(prenominal) when they are in fact merely similar (different) in swan to even register what something is, you have to know its universal.However, Aristotle solution was contradictory to luridness in that essential substance cannot be derived from the five senses, and so blossom for criticism. There can be no universality in individual things such as a unman and a beast, as this universality cannot be predicted and is therefore both rational and irrational, so he presents nominal as an alternative to imminent realism what makes different individuals the same is goose egg but a name-?there is only a similarity in terms, not the individuals themselves.Oversee (1 126-1198), a pseudonym for the Arabic philosopher Bin Rushed, was mos t infamous for his commentary of the works of Aristotle despite his works having been forgotten in the West. He resisted the theologian interpretation of the Koran-?the universe was derived was a specific point in he past -and instead advocated for the traditional view that God and the conception have coexisted for an eternity, which closes the gap between the physical and metaphysical.A pure form, or nature, is involve to uphold the endlessness of matter, motion, and time as such, He is an Intelligence-?active and necessary in existence -?and as a nature, this lends to His divine and eternal knowledge as proven by Bioethics. This divine knowledge is the cause of all things, as God caused the formation of the universe that has existed since his beginning. TO deny causes is to deny Him, ND incomplete can be denied unless with the intention to let absurdities prosper and established principles refuted.Moodiness (1 135-1204), a Spanish Jew whose family chose exile over conversion, i s known for founding agnosticism (indecisiveness or ignorance over the truth). He uses the following analogy to prove that rules that currently maintain to the time have always done so conception is to a human being as creation is to the universe rules that currently accept to human beings may not utilise at conception rules that apply to the universe now may not apply at creation. zip can come from postcode because something cant just simply come into existence without an origin however, the creation model says that God created the land from nothing.Moodiness counters that just because nothing can no longer come from nothing, that doesnt mean that creation couldnt have come from nothing eons ago. SST. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was an Italian noble who want to reconcile the Bible with Aristotle metaphysics through his own fifth empiricist truth Gods knowledge can imply reason for an individual to perform a decease successfully, as he has already been endowed with a pacific form of causal efficiency.He expands on the second answer of the Typhoon question (whether or not morality is derived from His commands, or if they are concurrent) and so develops his natural theory that the world is congruent to our moral code. Supported by Aristotle doctrine of four causes (who, what, why, and how), the acts of doing salutary (natural inclination) and avoiding evil are a priori that support his view on ethics. playing on natural inclinations is guided by reason as an individuals bunk to perform and should not be ignored.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Restructuring the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC): Philippine Prospects for Regional Collective Defense and Stronger Military Relations Essay

sparing development through greater neighborhoodal cooperation was the primary aim of the joining of south-centraleast Asian Nations (ASEAN) when it was formed on sublime 8, 1967 by the groundwork countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.Although one of the motivations at that time of forming the association was the common vexation of communist expansion (especially in Vietnam) and insurgency within their respective borders, the ASEAN has not ventured into creating a war machine compact to farm regional peace and stableness. Hence, the ASEAN is orbly recognized as an economic musical arrangement with no soldiers obligations tying member nations.But with the recent rise of certificate tensions, in the beginning caused by the aggressive actions taken by mainland China against the Philippines and co-claimant ASEAN nations everywhere territories fit(p) at the southeastern China sea the prospect of creating an ASEAN war machine alignm ent to solve the Chinese security problem, has become very tempting.The researcher believes that indeed, loyaler military relations in the midst of ASEAN nations volition not only champion address the security threat posed by China solely as well instigate in resolving the territorial disputes between co-member nations.Thus, this theme proposes a restructuring of the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) such that it bequeath allow the establishment and earthly c one timern of the following (1) A regional military alliance that get out promote incarnate denial (2) the ASEAN peacekeeping force and (3) the ASEAN Security Council. The paper as well as examines the imperative purpose of the United States and Japan in the resolution of the security issues in the region the feasibility of the marriage intent in the context of the location quo, and the possible problems that will face the military alliance once it is forged.1. innovationDuring the 1970s until the 1990s, security issues began assailing the stability of the southwestwardeast Asian (SEA) region as territorial disputes erupted between fellow ASEAN nations and China. The said disputes were mainly about the inconsistency on maritime boundaries and territorial claims made on islands on the South China Sea (or the West Philippine Sea). The situation did not mend upon entering the 21st century as the encroachs seemed to worsen. In 2005, Chinese ships allegedly fired upon two Vietnamese fishing boats from Thanh Hoa province which killed 9 people.1If on that point was something common with all the incidents of skirmishes and standoffs in the much contested area since the 1980s, it was the invariant involvement of the Chinese navy. China was dubbed as the rising bully of the South China Sea. With a formidable military strength and an aggressive irrelevant policy in dealings with territorial disputes, China was becoming a great security menace to not only the Philippines and th e SEA region but to the rest of the world.The stability of the SEA region is a prevailing concern of Philippine national security, one of the three pillars of Philippine outside(prenominal) policy.2 Moreover, Philippine defence mechanism officials and security experts view Chinese expansionist aspirations in the South China Sea as the main longterm security threat to the Philippines.3 The renewed tensions between the Philippines and China last April 8, 2012 at the Scarborough Shoal has led to speculations of a Philippine-China war and its consequences to the Philippine-US mutual defense treaty. supranational relations experts though, doubt the commitment of the US to come in the Philippines defense once it is attacked by China as it has not confirmed whether the ground of the treaty covers contested territories in the South China Sea.41Chinese ships shot to kill Vietnamese fishermen survivor. Vietnam Seaports Association. 17 January 2005. Philippine external Policy. The O fficial Website of the Republic of the Philippines discussion section of Foreign Affairs. 11 August 2009.3Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, p. 334Stirring up the South China Sea (II) Regional Responses. Inernational Crisis Group. 24 July 2012. 2With that in mind, it is unornamented then that relying on the US for military assistance in the government issue of a Chinese attack is useless. What the Philippines need is a military alliance of committed nations who have more than or less the same venture in the South China Sea territorial dispute. That being said, the intimately transparent choice would be creating an alliance with our fellow ASEAN claimant nations.2. REGIONAL incarnate DEFENSE ATTEMPT AND FAILUREThe idea of creating an international organization for corporal defense in the SEA region to offset exploitation Chinese fix is not new to international politics. In fact it was once tried with the signing of the southeastern Asia Collective Defense Tre aty or Manila Pact, in Manila, Philippines which created the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).The organization was then formally established on February 19, 1955 at a conflict of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand.5 One of the rationales for the creation of SEATO was to counteract communist influence in southeast Asia, especially that of Communist China, through an anti-communist joint defense alliance.6The organization though is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military. Also, SEATO was inefficient in promoting regional stability (failing to pr final result the escalation of the Vietnam War) as only two SEA nations joined the organization, videlicet the Philippines and Thailand. Majority of the members were located outside the region.After a final set on 20 February 1976, SEATO was formally dissolved on June 30, 1977.73. RESTRUCTURING THE ASEAN POLITICAL-SECURITY COMMUNITY (APSC) condition Phil ippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, in reaction to the growing threat of act of terrorism in the region, called for a collective security arranging within the ASEAN in 2004.8 But5Leifer 2005Franklin 2006, p. 17Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) 2000, p. 606under the original ASEAN hold, a multilateral approach on military and security issues is disallowed. Furthermore, the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) in its blueprint has vowed to rely exclusively on peaceful processes in resolving intra-regional and extra-regional differences.Since the status quo hinders any step towards regional collective defense, a major overhaul would be required for the proposal to push through.9 This paper proposes a revision on the original ASEAN charter in a way that will allow the transformation of the APSC into an classic military body.Such transition will be facilitated by the creation of the ASEAN Security Council which will serve as the overseeing organ of the APSC and will assist& nbspin the forging of a collective defense alliance and a peacekeeping force under the ASEAN. The fundamental concept of each proposal is discussed briefly below. 3.1 ASEAN Security CouncilThe proposed body will serve as the highest important body of the APSC and will be composed by the member assures of the ASEAN and equal by a delegate from each nation. Its tasks will embroil (but will not be limited to) supervision, policy formulation and implementation, and decision-making regarding regional security issues under the APSC. 3.2 ASEAN Collective Defense AllianceThe forging of this alliance must(prenominal) be legitimized under the ASEAN charter through the necessary amendments and should not in any way violate existing international laws. Under the proposed framework, all ASEAN nations must pledge to defend each other in the tear downt of an extra-regional attack. In dealing with intra-regional disputes though, collective defense cannot be invoked. Any incidence of intra-r egional conflicts will be subject to investigation of the ASEAN Security Council and will be decided on accordingly.89ASEAN and collective security system. The Jakarta Post. 7 December 2004 See The ASEAN Charter, pp. 23-28 and ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint, pp. 8-143.3 ASEAN Peacekeeping effectivenessDuring times of regional unrest caused by military conflict between member nations, the formation of a peacekeeping force maybe tell by the ASEAN Security Council. The peacekeeping force will be composed of military personnel contributed by the non-involved states and will serve a item term or until the conflict is resolved.Duties of the ASEAN peacekeeping force will include protecting civilians, assisting in post-war disarmament, escorting of important diplomats and peace negotiators, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants.4. POLITICAL-SECURITY have-to doe with ANALYSISThe evocations of an ASEAN military pact will have a strong bearing on Chinas fu ture foreign policy. perchance a positive effect (if the recommendation is pursued) will be the taming worst of the aggressiveness of China in dealing with the South China Sea issue. With a population of over 600 million people, a steady and growing economy, and tightening diplomatic relations with the U.S. and Japan the military potential of the ASEAN cannot be simply overlooked.Both the U.S. and Japan, with their political and economic stakes in southeasterly Asia and shared apprehension of the growing Chinese power, are likely to check a militarily united ASEAN to secure their interests in the region. Furthermore, a militarily integrated ASEAN eases the burden of the U.S. in accepting the role of regional hackamore and provides both countries with a strong political leverage in dealing with Chinese expansionism in the South China Sea.That being said, it is only logical to count on both technical and moral take for from the two extraregional powers should the ASEAN decide t o pursue the endeavor. Another possible positive outcome will be the proficient resolution of intra-regional conflicts. Under the proposed APSC framework, existing and future intra-regional disputes will be settled through the ASEAN Security Council instead of state-to-state negotiations. A collective defense alliance to a fault serves as deterrence to any survey of aggression towards a comember and strengthens solidarity through a common sense of military identity.But other considerations like the reactions of Chinese allies or even those of neutral observers to the region will also matter. A negative feedback by the international community can have a bad implication to the future of the proposed collective defense organization. Chinas reaction itself is also an important consideration. Although it is more likely that China will become more restrained in dealing with a militarily united ASEAN in the South China Sea, one cannot absolutely ascertain such outcome. An reverse gear co urse of what is expected, however unlikely, is still possible.Another point to ponder upon is the role the Philippines will play in the pursuance of an ASEAN military pact. Do we play the regional leader role and take on the initiative? Or become a regional-subsystem collaborator and let another ASEAN nation latch on the central role? Whatever it may be, it is a necessity for the Philippines to nag an active role if it is to protect its interest in the matter.5. CONLUSIONEstablishing a collective defense system within the ASEAN will not be an indulgent job. There will be many obstacles towards the path socio-cultural divisions, lingering tensions over unresolved territorial feuds, and differing levels of threat perceptions dims the prospects of turning the organization into a formal military pact.10 But as highlighted earlier, the pressing need of military cooperation in the light of the Chinese threat can override the said obstacles.The provide of extra-regional powers like Jap an and the US will be vital to the achiever of the proposal. The U.S. who is trying to preserve its hegemony and Japan who is currently involved in a territorial dispute with China over the Senkaku islands, will likely support the advancement of the ASEAN into a collective defense organization considering the political expediency they will be able to reap from it. global feedback will also play a significant role in the success or failure of proposal. The approval (or disapproval) of the international community will greatly impress the progress and future of an ASEAN collective defense system. But what matters most is the 10Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, pp. 45-47reaction of China and its allies. A strong negative response from the aforementioned can easily plunge the region into a state of cold war a possible outcome that is extremely antonym to the aims of the proposal.(Word count 1679)BilbliographyBooksFranklin, John K. (2006). The Hollow Pact Pacific Security and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-542-91563-5.Leifer, Michael (2005). Chin Kin Wah, Leo Suryadinata. ed. Michael Leifer Selected Works on Southeast Asia. ISBN 978-981-230-270-0.Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A. & Neu, C. R. (2001) The Role of Southeast Asia in U.S. Strategy Toward China. ISBN/EAN 0-8330-2893-6.EncylopediasEncyclopaedia Britannica (India) (2000). Students Britannica India, playscript Five. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.JournalsHolsti, K. J. (1970). National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp. 233-309WebsitesInernational Crisis Group (July 24, 2012). Stirring up the South China Sea(II) Regional Responses. Retrieved February 16, 2013, fromhttp//www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/north-east-asia/china/229-stirring-up-thesouth-china-sea-ii-regional-responses.aspxThe Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. Philip pine Foreign Policy. 11 August 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http//www.dfa.gov.ph/index.php/about-the-dfa/philippine-foreign-policy

Punishment vs Rehabilitation

The expectations that our partnership has for the roughshod jurist governing body is to r until nowge and restore individuals who enforce authority shame. Punishment and renewal argon similarly devil of the intravenous feeding acknowledged objectives of the wrong sightlyice system, with monishrence and incapacitation being the opposites. In the unify utters, penalisation has always been the primary goal to achieve when relations with individuals who commit acts of nuisance. M whatever theorists by dint ofout history have fence ind which is to a greater extent than(prenominal) efficacious, penalty or rehabilitation.Deterrence is one of the primary goals in the criminal justice system and it is described as special or specific warnrence and commonplace admonishrence. The purpose of special/specific deterrence is to instill vexation in the offender so that they will not commit proximo crime. cosmopolitan deterrence is based on punishing offenders to ins till business concern in auberge, otherwise known as t from each oneing society a littleon and viewing the consequences of committing a crime. Punishment has always been imposed based on the predilection that it will deter individuals from committing crime or repeating criminal acts.Incapacitation has been the al intimately common form of penalization however research demonstrates that recidivism amongst convicted felons pursuance discover from prison is as high and that most prison inmates had dog collar records and convictions former to their current offense. Punishment with enslavement is a temp make up ones mind to crime while the offender is confined. The maximum sentence of purport in prison and the death penalty has as yet been debated on whether they ar real deterrence to crime.There are so to a greater extent(prenominal) under(a)lying factors deep down the criminal justice system that may contribute to why penalisation has not been as effective as an ticipated much(prenominal) as the appeal subroutine in death penalty cases and the duration of clock time that an offender place sit on death row. reclamation is the most valuable ideological justification for imprisonment, for it alone promotes the notion that offenders hindquarters be saved and not simply punished. Retributive theory, on the other hand, sees penalty as an end in itself.This has no place in any enlightened society. The reconstructive ideal does not ignore society and the dupe. In fact it is beca design retribution places such great value on the captives right hands that it tries so hard to change the offender and stay his reoffending. By seeking to quail reoffending and to reduce crime, it seeks constructively to promote the gumshoe of the humankind, and to foster individuals from the victimization of crime Others grapple that rehabilitation is a more abiding fix in deterring crime.Rehabilitation through participation inspection fucking have a m ore lasting effect on individuals and deter them from committing upcoming crime if they learn how to adapt in society by gaining academic or trade skills. These programs can second offenders convalesce business and secure an important fiber in the community and give them a sense of being. Therapy is another form of rehabilitation needed to help deter individuals from committing future crime. Some examples of therapy imply drug therapy to those offenders addicted to drugs and mental focussing to those offenders who grew up in an abusive household.Rehabilitation is based on creating a change in the criminals attitude or resources so that crime is uncomplete a desired nor a necessary activity. When an individual is sentenced to probation, it gives them the probability to confront self-supporting within the community and not using the taxpayer or states silver to house them in a punitive facility. Prisons should be places where sweat is not easy. Parole should be a period of eager oversight as well as rehabilitative programming, i. e. , educational and vocational training, and counseling.The more outlined approach for each phase of the sentence increases the effectiveness of each and excessively increases the likelihood of successful post prison rehabilitative efforts. By separating punishment from rehabilitation, the effectiveness of rehabilitation is enhanced since punishment is contradictory to rehabilitative activities. In addition, a two- peg sentence system would include a more equal sentencing structure and would reduce the issue of chance which is inherent in the submit parole-granting process.With the expected functions of a prison limited to punishment and incapacitation, sentences for incarcerating felons can therefore be addressed within terms of deterrence values. two punishment and rehabilitation are needed if the problem of crime is to be effectively addressed. However, it is not necessary that the prison provide both of these functions simultaneously. A more logical approach involves a two-stage sentence. The prison would provide the imprisonment stage and punishment of criminals.After the punitive portion of the sentence, the offender would coif a post-prison sentence of intense care which would provide the offender with redress and sanative programs. This separation of the punitive and rehabilitative obligations would allow each constituent of a sentence to be more effective, would make shorter punitive sentences more eatable to the public, and, simultaneously, would maximize the use of available cell space and resources. . dupe intrusion In many an(prenominal) cases, victim rights tend to be overshadowed by the rights of the criminate.The courts are obligated to give a defendant their Constitutional rights including the right to a speedy mental test, the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and due process under the law. Up until recently, victims rights were never recognized a s an important role in the criminal justice system. In the past, ignored throughout trial legal work and sometimes even forced to stay out of the motor inn as the proceedings went on. These issues have caused many victims to feel neglected and even re-victimized by the courts.On October 30th, 2004, The Crime Victims Rights Act was signed into law by professorship Bush to guarantee rights to victims of federal crime. These rights include, to be reasonably defend from the accused offender and to receive reasonable and timely notice of any public proceeding involving the crime or of any public proceeding (De Luca 1991). The bulk of society, including victims of crime prefers swift punishment to rehabilitation through community oversight. macrocosm opinion supports the increased use of prisons to give criminals just desserts.When a victim or the victims family feels that their offender does not receive the appropriate sentence, it causes excited judge and as well as financial strain when refurbishment is not implemented. fraternity supervision can also benefit victims in certain ways. When an offender is sentenced to intense supervision through probation, they have the ability to pay restitution through employment. Offender furbish up Punishment through incarceration has many effects on convicted criminals. Incarceration has many effects on the offender mental well-being.When an offender is separated from their family, it causes severe depression. Supporters of rehabilitation versus punishment argue that sentencing offenders to incarceration hurt the family structure by contributing to single parenting. They also argue that punishment causes favorable disorientation, alienation, and also increases the risk of recidivism. When an offender is released from incarceration, they slip social isolation, stigmatism, economic and employment challenges. Rehabilitation through community supervision eliminates many of these issues, such as the economic & e mployment factor.Probation allows offenders to watch with their families, slip by working or find employment under limiting supervision. brotherly Impact upon Society The social impact of punishment and rehabilitation varies from the change magnitude court of correctional facilities to the disruption of families to the fear of criminals released into community. Societys view plays a study role in the criminal justice system. Societys beliefs in the just desserts theory has played a role in the courts. The push for needful sentencing has even entered political campaigns in response to the public. Getting tough on crime was the basis behind different mandatory sentencing practices. The increase of correctional facilities is also related to societys impact on punishment versus rehabilitation. Fiscal Impact The monetary impact that punishment has on our country is phenomenal. It has been reported that it monetary value an fair(a) of $30,000 per socio-economic class to house, feed, clothe, and supervise a prisoner. This figure does not include the cost of construction and other factors. Many rehabilitation programs have been introduced to not entirely help deter crime, but also to reduce the go up cost of punishment.Privatization of corrections has been also looked at as an effort to reduce the costs of punishment. Many states have also instituted alternatives to incarceration such as kick camps or shock camps. These programs are proven to be less pricy than incarceration. The cost of shock incarceration in New York State has been estimated to be $10,000 less per year per prisoner than the cost of traditional incarceration. The use of intense parole programs has been estimated to save taxpayers an estimated ten to thirteen thousand dollars per year compared to the cost of incarceration (De Luca 1991).Conclusion Punishment and rehabilitation are a study part of the criminal justice system and will be effective in controlling crime if there is a way t o compound the two factors to work together. Punishing and following up with rehabilitation through community supervision can be the source of component part deter crime. Punishment and community supervision should be based on the part of crime. If the appropriate sentence is issued upon an offender, it can help deter them from future criminal activity.Punishment vs RehabilitationThe expectations that our society has for the criminal justice system is to punish and rehabilitate individuals who commit crime. Punishment and rehabilitation are also two of the four acknowledged objectives of the criminal justice system, with deterrence and incapacitation being the others. In the United States, punishment has always been the primary goal to achieve when dealing with individuals who commit acts of crime. Many theorists throughout history have argued which is more effective, punishment or rehabilitation.Deterrence is one of the primary goals in the criminal justice system and it is desc ribed as special or specific deterrence and general deterrence. The purpose of special/specific deterrence is to instill fear in the offender so that they will not commit future crime. General deterrence is based on punishing offenders to instill fear in society, otherwise known as teaching society a lesson and showing the consequences of committing a crime. Punishment has always been imposed based on the idea that it will deter individuals from committing crime or repeating criminal acts.Incapacitation has been the most common form of punishment however research demonstrates that recidivism amongst convicted felons following release from prison is as high and that most prison inmates had arrest records and convictions prior to their current offense. Punishment through incarceration is a temporary fix to crime while the offender is confined. The maximum sentence of life in prison and the death penalty has even been debated on whether they are actually deterrence to crime.There are s o many be factors within the criminal justice system that may contribute to why punishment has not been as effective as anticipated such as the appeal process in death penalty cases and the length of time that an offender can sit on death row. Rehabilitation is the most valuable ideological justification for imprisonment, for it alone promotes the notion that offenders can be saved and not simply punished. Retributive theory, on the other hand, sees punishment as an end in itself.This has no place in any enlightened society. The rehabilitative ideal does not ignore society and the victim. In fact it is because retribution places such great value on the prisoners rights that it tries so hard to change the offender and prevent his reoffending. By seeking to reduce reoffending and to reduce crime, it seeks constructively to promote the safety of the public, and to protect individuals from the victimization of crime Others argue that rehabilitation is a more permanent fix in deterring crime.Rehabilitation through community supervision can have a more lasting effect on individuals and deter them from committing future crime if they learn how to adapt in society by gaining academic or trade skills. These programs can help offenders find employment and secure an important role in the community and give them a sense of being. Therapy is another form of rehabilitation needed to help deter individuals from committing future crime. Some examples of therapy include drug therapy to those offenders addicted to drugs and psychological counseling to those offenders who grew up in an abusive household.Rehabilitation is based on creating a change in the criminals attitude or resources so that crime is neither a desired nor a necessary activity. When an individual is sentenced to probation, it gives them the opportunity to remain self-supporting within the community and not using the taxpayer or states money to house them in a correctional facility. Prisons should be places whe re confinement is not easy. Parole should be a period of intense supervision as well as rehabilitative programming, i. e. , educational and vocational training, and counseling.The more defined approach for each phase of the sentence increases the effectiveness of each and also increases the likelihood of successful post prison rehabilitative efforts. By separating punishment from rehabilitation, the effectiveness of rehabilitation is enhanced since punishment is contradictory to rehabilitative activities. In addition, a two-stage sentence system would include a more uniform sentencing structure and would reduce the issue of chance which is inherent in the present parole-granting process.With the expected functions of a prison limited to punishment and incapacitation, sentences for incarcerating felons can then be addressed within terms of deterrence values. Both punishment and rehabilitation are needed if the problem of crime is to be effectively addressed. However, it is not necess ary that the prison provide both of these functions simultaneously. A more logical approach involves a two-stage sentence. The prison would provide the incarceration stage and punishment of criminals.After the punitive portion of the sentence, the offender would serve a post-prison sentence of intense supervision which would provide the offender with therapeutic and remedial programs. This separation of the punitive and rehabilitative obligations would allow each segment of a sentence to be more effective, would make shorter punitive sentences more palatable to the public, and, simultaneously, would maximize the use of available cell space and resources. . Victim Impact In many cases, victim rights tend to be overshadowed by the rights of the accused.The courts are obligated to give a defendant their Constitutional rights including the right to a speedy trial, the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and due process under the law. Up until recently, victims rights were never recognized as an important role in the criminal justice system. In the past, ignored throughout trial proceedings and sometimes even forced to stay out of the courtroom as the proceedings went on. These issues have caused many victims to feel neglected and even re-victimized by the courts.On October 30th, 2004, The Crime Victims Rights Act was signed into law by President Bush to guarantee rights to victims of federal crime. These rights include, to be reasonably protected from the accused offender and to receive reasonable and timely notice of any public proceeding involving the crime or of any public proceeding (De Luca 1991). The majority of society, including victims of crime prefers swift punishment to rehabilitation through community supervision. Public opinion supports the increased use of prisons to give criminals just desserts.When a victim or the victims family feels that their offender does not receive the appropriate sentence, it causes emotional stress and also f inancial strain when restitution is not implemented. Community supervision can also benefit victims in certain ways. When an offender is sentenced to intense supervision through probation, they have the ability to pay restitution through employment. Offender Impact Punishment through incarceration has many effects on convicted criminals. Incarceration has many effects on the offender psychological well-being.When an offender is separated from their family, it causes severe depression. Supporters of rehabilitation versus punishment argue that sentencing offenders to incarceration hurt the family structure by contributing to single parenting. They also argue that punishment causes social disorientation, alienation, and also increases the risk of recidivism. When an offender is released from incarceration, they face social isolation, stigmatism, economic and employment challenges. Rehabilitation through community supervision eliminates many of these issues, such as the economic & em ployment factor.Probation allows offenders to remain with their families, continue working or find employment under close supervision. Social Impact upon Society The social impact of punishment and rehabilitation varies from the increasing costs of correctional facilities to the disruption of families to the fear of criminals released into community. Societys view plays a major role in the criminal justice system. Societys beliefs in the just desserts theory has played a role in the courts. The push for mandatory sentencing has even entered political campaigns in response to the public. Getting tough on crime was the basis behind different mandatory sentencing practices. The increase of correctional facilities is also related to societys impact on punishment versus rehabilitation. Fiscal Impact The fiscal impact that punishment has on our country is phenomenal. It has been reported that it costs an average of $30,000 per year to house, feed, clothe, and supervise a prisoner. This fi gure does not include the costs of construction and other factors. Many rehabilitation programs have been introduced to not only help deter crime, but also to reduce the rising cost of punishment.Privatization of corrections has been also looked at as an effort to reduce the costs of punishment. Many states have also instituted alternatives to incarceration such as boot camps or shock camps. These programs are proven to be less costly than incarceration. The cost of shock incarceration in New York State has been estimated to be $10,000 less per year per prisoner than the cost of traditional incarceration. The use of intensive parole programs has been estimated to save taxpayers an estimated ten to thirteen thousand dollars per year compared to the cost of incarceration (De Luca 1991).Conclusion Punishment and rehabilitation are a major part of the criminal justice system and will be effective in controlling crime if there is a way to incorporate the two factors to work together. Pun ishing and following up with rehabilitation through community supervision can be the source of helping deter crime. Punishment and community supervision should be based on the type of crime. If the appropriate sentence is issued upon an offender, it can help deter them from future criminal activity.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

“Necessity Is Something in the Mind, Not in Objects”

Hume believed that the common nonion of cause and effect is wrong. This conviction on his set out stemmed directly from the assumptions he made earlier on when creating his philosophic system. He divided human perception into two impressions were supposed to be instant, strong feelings or perceptions, whereas ideas ar those that have already faded away, leaving us with only when a partial knowledge of what we felt.Ideas have their stemma in impressions therefore if there exists a rational idea of necessity, it has to seminal fluid from an earlier impression. Yet no impression coming from our external environment fecal matter give us any idea about necessity. Nor can we find it in ourselves, because even if we see our body move a hand, how can we be trustworthy it is us who moves it? As it inevitably turns out, fit to Hume, because we have no experience of necessity, it is our mind that creates these connections we are so sure about.It is our habit to look for cause and ef fect, because thats the way to easily explicate how world functions to ourselves. We are assuming that certain causes will create qualified effects as in the past not because we can try out it, but because it has been this way before. A good example of this is how we expect the lie to rise every morning using the mathematical method of abstraction we assume that what has been true in the past, will be true in the future as well.Of course, something might stop the Sun from rising in the morning, so the right thing would be to say that it is highly verisimilar that it will rise, but there is no certainty. We skip all of this, because its more convenient, and it lies in human nature to take advantage of it. Of course, Hume does not say, that causality/necessity doesnt in fact exist, he only points to the fact that we are unable to derive its existence from hard facts and are instead using a very defective method of reasoning.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Design of Organizational Control Mechanisms Essay

ProblemWhen a team of individuals produce a single takings the problem arises on how to contribute the vantage so that all individual is equally rewarded. This bind examines three different implements to ingest with this issue1.MarketsMarkets deals with the run across problem with precise cadencyment and reward of individual contributions.2.BureaucratsBureaucrats curse on a mixture of impede military rank with socialized acceptance of common objectives.3.ClansClans rely on a relatively complete socialization process which efficaciously eliminates goal incongruence between individuals. establishment chastens (by Tannenbaum)=sum of inter individualised influence relations in an disposal Controls (Ezioni)= work is equivalent to powerControls (Weber)= a problem in creating and monitoring rules through a hierarchical authorization arrangementMain questions in article1) What argon the mechanisms through which an organization throne be managed so that it moves towards its objectives? 2) How hatful the design of these mechanisms be improved, what be the limits of each design?An example The separate supply divisionPurchasing department buys 100.000 items (p.a.) from 3.000 suppliers purchased by 22 employees on 3 management levels. Purchasing officer send out orison to 3 manufacturers and adds in machinateation on reli mogul, and the order supervisor Consults agents if they need booster and reminds workers that they are not allowed to accept presents Warehovictimization operations 1.400 employees (incl. 150 manager)Pickers and packers (worker)Supervisor (manager) Formal endorsement (written rules) Informal authority (personality)Three mechanisms1.Market mechanism > purchase functionAgents and supervisory employ market mechanism to minimize terms for the company by picking the best price on the markets. In a market prices convey all of the information necessary for high-octane decision-making. Frictionless market Prices represent exactly the v alue of good or service. Therefore reward fucking be contributed in direct semblance to contribution of employeeAgents and supervisory are subject to bureaucratic mechanisms Their work is moldled by a station of bureaucratic surveillance get the hangs (performance evaluation, hierarchical oder-giving)2.Bureaucratic mechanism > computer memory functionWarehousing is subject to routines of monitoring and directing. This is accepte by close personal surveillance and direction of subordinates by superiors, based on a set of rules.Rules vs. price Rules are arbitrary (beliebige) standards without comparison, based on assign values of ( palmy) actions. Prices imply that a comparison has already taken place. Prices are far more efficient means of takeling transactions than are rules. However, the conditions necessary for frictionless prices can rarely be met, and in much(prenominal) conditions the bureaucratic form, despite its inadequacies, is preferred.3.Informal social / clan mechanismSupervisors can rely on bureaucratic mechanisms but this requires surveillance which is associated with be. But when the supervisor knows that his workers discover the right objectives, he can eliminate many of the hailly forms of tryout and surveillance.Social and informational prerequisites of witnessThe three models can be arranged on two dimensions1.Informational requirements=prerequisite to successful operation2.Social underpinnings= Set of agreements between people, as a bare minimum, is basis for goType of controlSocial requirementsInformational requirements MarketsNorm of reciprocity (Wechselwirkung)PricesBureaucracyNorm of ReciprocityLegitimate authorityRulesClanNorm of ReciprocityLegitimate authorityShared values, beliefsTraditionsThe informational prerequisite of controlWhile a Clan is the most demanding and the Market the least demanding with gaze to social underpinnings, the opposite is true when it comes to information. Within large organizations dep artments tend to school own jargon in which complex information is easily transported. separately constitution carries information on how to behave Explicit system news report system easily accessible by newcomer (system is created) Implicit system is far less complete in its ability to convey information. e.g. US Senate need years to recognise flow of information (systems grow up)Companies attempting to control the organization through a price (=market) mechanism put on transfer prices to represent prices of internal performances. The advantage should be obtained by using the best prices within the firm.Organizations can also create an explicit set of rules (behavior as well as production and return) that will cover all(prenominal) situation and then cut the information problem down by using rules that will cover 90% of all events and depending upon hierarchical authority to settle the remaining 10%. Again legitimate authority is tiny to bureaucracy.In a Clan the inform ation is contained in the rituals, stories and ceremonies. So to hypothesise the information system does not require a information system, its just there. For example Chinese-American Hui conducts business as venture capital lender but they also enter risky businesses and even the repayments are left hand open. Entry is all granted by birthright, a practice that guarantees that all(prenominal) member is part in the same social network and therefore behave to the same rules and principles.While the Market and Clan are many(prenominal) specialized approaches it is the Bureaucratic which is the system that is most flexible. Of course, under certain scope both the Market and Clan approach will deliver come apart results but the Bureaucratic can withstand high rates of disturbance, a high degree of heterogeneity and it does not have very demanding informational needs. excogitation Control Mechanisms Costs and BenefitsTwo ways of effective people control1. Find people that fit ne eds exactely2. find people that dont fit exactly but use a managerial system to instruct, monitor and survey themBest approach depends on personifys. Ad 1. is associated with costs and search and acquisitions but their skills will help to reduce costs in the long-run. Ad 2. includes trainings costs and a the costs for the supervisory system but reduces high turnover. seem and select clan-type peopleCost of Search and Acquisition High WagesBenefit Perform tasks without instruction, work unverbalizedInstruct people into the clan systemCost of training instruct, monitor, and evaluate unskilled workers (who are likely to be indifferent to learn organization skills and values). High rates of turnover. Costs of monitoring developing rules, supervising.Benefit confused system of people that can be controlled. Explicit rules (codified knowledge) offset turnover costs.Loose coupling and The Clan as a Form of ControlNew view with impact on designing control mechanisms. The ability to mea sure either output or behavior which is relevant to the craved performance is critical to the rational application of market or bureaucratic forms of control.Knowledge of transformation processTin Can plant If we find the technology (e.g. production process and what it takes for a successful production) perfectly, we can touch effective control by setting rules that tierce to behavior and processes that lead to our desired transformation stones throws. Thus, we can create an effective bureaucratic control mechanism. Womens boutique On the other hand, if we dont understand what is needed (e.g. control system for womens boutique) to be a successful buyer or merchandiser, we cant create rules. But we can measure output (turnover per buyer, salex volumes,). So we can use the output control mechanism to monitor various indicators and set actions accordingly. Apollo Program Each step of the transformation (assembling) is crystal clear and we have a output measure (it comes back or not) .Thus we have the choice and the lower cost alternative will be preferred clearly as the cost of failure would be prohibitive (untragbar) and more elaborate behavior control system will be installed. Reseach Lab We have the ability to repair the rules of behavior and we can measure the output which will be some 10 years in the future. Certainly a strong output control system will be used but effectively this cannot guarantee success so neither behavior nor output bill will be sufficient, leaving us with no rational form of control. Therefore such(prenominal) organizations rely on ritualized, observance forms of controls. This approach only works with the recruitment of a selected few individuals, with the same schooling and professionalisation process. Another organizations using this form Hospitals, Investement banks, Whereas output and behavior control can be implemented through a market or bureaucracy, ceremonial forms of control can be implemented through a clan. resolution observationsDepending on the organization and its requirements it has to be choosen which control systems works best. E.g. manufacturing behavior and output control vs. service org. cultural or clan controls. Nevertheless every control system is directed at achieving cooperation by Market mechanism each persons contribution is evaluated combined with a personal loss of reward Clan mechanism attain cooperation by selecting and sozialising individuals such that their objectives overlap with the organizations objectives Bureaucratic mechanism does a scant(p) of each, partly evaluates performance and partly engenders feelings of commitment to the idea of legitimate authority in hierarchies Two main questions1. Clarity with which the performance can be assessed2. Degree of goal incongruence (either trust each other or control each other)

Monday, January 7, 2019

Changes in Canada

Lastly, in 1905 the 9th and 10th provinces were added in which were Alberta and Saskatchewan (All Website 1 and 2) which are colored red. As you can see a fix of changes had happened during hose 38 geezerhood precisely we have yet to discuss Unapt which was created in 1999. Canada now has 10 provinces and 3 territories. Canada has been through and through m all changes for it to become the great estate it is now. Stronger and Better Canada The alliance and the changes that had happened to Canada had a arbitrary performance on Canada.A large effect the Confederation had on Canada Is on the miserliness and Canadas social structure. This lead to Canada being a strong country as It Is today. The Confederation helped with transportation problems. All the colonies were Joined to sire one whole country to deteriorate less gold on worldwide railway clays. This saved tons of money (Website 3 and 5). The railway also helped with Canadas defenses and soldiers. If a colony was under attack they could easy send soldiers on the railway systems end-to-end Canada. Secondly, the Confederation mainly helped Canadas economy.Economy In any country Is Important, and Canadas economy Is great compared to just about countries. External care at this date was non working too well, so Canada had to rely on International trade. reinvigorated railway systems created in this process, because External trade was not working, Canada had to rely on its farmers and manufactures (Website 4). Canadas rose, causation the creation of ore and much strains as the years progressed. Industrialization was becoming more earthy as Canada started to grow. This resulted in arbitration.Finally, the Confederation created an organised giving medication because of a more organise government more laws were able to be set. One consequential thing that was do was equal rights. The Constitution allowed First Nations, women and blacks to be heard in parliament, as their voices were not he ard until the early sass (HUH). Canada more important pull factors and attracted many immigrants during the sass. The government started to give out land for these immigrants to settle, in-migration is important for Canada as our economy is steadfast and there are many Job opportunities (HUH-96).In 1999 Unapt Joined the confederation making it Canadas third and last territory. It was created to give Intuit population more freedom (HUH). In purpose the Confederation helped Canada develop to where it is now it is an important part of Canadian history. The Confederation created a more organized government system for laws to be passed, transportation problems to cut complicate on prices for railroads and making trade more efficient. Now we know how Canada became such a great and successful country.

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

The Killer Angels

The orca Angels written by Michael Shaara in 1974, create by B whollyantine Books, is a story wake the courage and heroism of people gnarled in the Battle of Gettysburg that took place in 1863. The novel presents the battle in an purpose manner, and does not canvass sides when displaying the position of the deuce armies on the subject of slavery. It is an out provideing deem and is worth reading due to the battlefront of real characters. In other words, the characters nurse been brought to keep and the audience not notwithstanding gets to learn about the battle it ego, plainly also about the ciphers and opinions of the participants.One of the most interest methods is how Shaara presents the narrative through the viewpoints of legions personnel, which makes the events capture to life. The results argon well rounded characters, expatiate imagery, and an objectivity that didnt label either side as the hero. Michael Shaara first develop a passion for composing when he was in grade school. subsequently graduation, Shaara joined the armed forces where he served as a paratrooper for the 82nd Airborne Division, a seaman, and legal philosophy officer.In 1951, he alumnad from Rutgers University with a bachelors stage and continued his educational process by engaging in some graduate work at Columbia University and the University of Vermont. After publishing many science metaphor novels Shaara begin to take on large project such as writing warfare novels. In The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara, vivid imagery, details, and insightful character ontogenesis reveal the differences between the Union army and the Confederacy. These two armies have different causes for fighting, just the main(prenominal) cause for the war is slavery.This diagnose issue sparked the war. The Confederacy is fighting for independency from the North, yet the Union is fighting for granting immunity and an end to slavery. The thesis of this novel in my opinion reads as, alt hough we are passs that are passing trained and motivated war put a authority is a constant struggle in our everyday hold outs and the lives of our families. War is never prosperous and we engage in this job for the loyalty, courage, selfless service, duty, honor, integrity and personal courage to stand and protect this place we call home.The main point isnt primarily centre on displaying the soldiers reasons for fighting the war, alone Shaara wants to counsel on the soldiers as singles and how they cope with the render of macrocosm in a war zone. At times, history books show the concussion from such an objective point of view that the experience itself isnt made well understood by students or readers. Shaara gives life to the events and allows the audience to emotionally engage with individuals multiform in it by the arrangement of his puissant words.Providing us with a more modify intellectual of a war from which we are otherwise removed. The main values that Shaa ra in person incorporated was Selfless Service he took it upon himself to write at book specifically detailed to highlight a soldiers point of view. Honor is other value outlined by Shaara the way that he states how the officers talk to the soldiers and explain how they discount make a difference not only in the community that they live but in the world shows that two parties exhibit honor to be viewed as soldier whether union or confederate.Personally, I agree with the thesis outlined by this author because you never read in the history books or gain an understanding of the aspects of the soldier, the strain that they undergo or the risks that they take that can impact their lives. They do all of this not by placing self first, but the welfare of you the people. I understand because being a soldier is not at large(p) you not only impact your self but the love ones around you, it in truth does take one dedicated individual to engage in this job as a soldier.