Monday, August 19, 2019

The Unnecessary Nuclear Attacks on Nagasaki and Hiroshima Essays

The realist school of thought stands for anarchy and fighting for its own selfish reasons to preserve the nation's interest. Back in December 7th, 1941 after the Japanese air force attack to Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, America’s military was caught by surprise bringing out the attention of the whole nation against Japan. President Harry S. Truman, made the decision in 1945 to attack Japan with nuclear bombs in August 6 first to Hiroshima and then three day on August 9 to Nagasaki. Days later, Japan surrender, and World War II was drawn into a close. Realist scholars say that the decision made to use the bombs was unnecessary. The death among the two cities were around 200,000, in Hiroshima there were 90,000 deaths, and Nagasaki had 37,000 death, without counting the deaths of the injured and after nuclear exposure and contamination after effects. Although, people usually think realism is attach to power, force, and attack, they knew back then Japan had been defeated before the bombs were drop. Scholars like Hans Morgenthau, Gar Alperovitz, George Kennan, and Generals and Admirals like Dwight Eisenhower, William D. Leahy, Ralph Bard, L. Lewis Strauss, Henry H. Arnold, and others question the what was the real reason behind Truman's presidency to use the mass destruction weapons. One of the main reasons behind the attack was to proof to the Soviet Union that we had the nuclear weapon and we were not afraid to use it against our enemies. The major excuse used was that the destruction of the two cities minimize the United States military casualties that would had been produce by war battles. At that time General Eisenhower expressed his dreading opinion of the devastating decision, the Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson though the str... .... 2015. . Morgenthau, Hans J. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Knopf, 1948. Print. Stimson, Henry L. "The Decision to Use The Atomic Bomb." Asia for Educators - Columbia University (1947): 1-16. Web. "The Decision to Deploy the Atomic Bombs Against Japan as Well as the Alternatives That the Us Had." Gem Portfolio. N.p., 19 Nov. 2013. Web. . Visser, Laurens J. "Speaking Truth to Power: Hans J. Morgenthau and the 21st Century." Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (n.d.): 204-22. Print. Weber, Mark. "Was Hiroshima Necessary? Why the Atomic Bombings Could Have Been Avoided." The Journal of Historical Review 16.3 (1997): 4-11. Print.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Abortion Essay - Roe v. Wade and Morality -- Argumentative Persuasive

Roe v. Wade and Morality   Ã‚   Michael Pearce Pfeifer in "Abandoning Error: Self-Correction by the Supreme Court," states the impact of Roe v. Wade on morals:    Seldom, if ever, has a single Supreme Court decision so decisively transformed American constitutional history or so altered the relationship between law and morals - both public and private. Roe v. Wade established within the Constitution a doctrine that has entirely legitimized what had previously been almost universally condemned: the practice of abortion on demand throughout the nine months of pregnancy. Such precedent setting decisions are usually derived from the social, economic, political, and legal philosophy of the majority of the Justices who make up the Court, and also represent a segment of the American population at a given time in history. Seldom has a Supreme Court decision sliced so deeply into the basic fabric that composes the tapestry and direction of American law or instigated such profound changes in cherished rights, values, and personal prerogatives of individuals: the right to privacy, the structure of the family, the status of medical technology and its impact upon law and life, and the authority of state governments to protect the lives of their citizens.(3-4)    The far-reaching impact of Roe v. Wade derives from one cause: Every abortion involves, either surgically or chemically, the destruction of a human zygote or a human fetus, and the subsequent removal of that human life from his/her mother's womb. Therefore, every single abortion ends a human life.    There are many who say that the preborn child is just a mass of tissue, a part of the woman's body. If this were the case, then no one would have any reason to o... ...oks, 1981. p.213.    Pfeifer, Michael Pearce. "Abandoning Error: Self-Correction by the Supreme Court." Abortion and the Constitution: Reversing Roe v. Wade Through the Courts. Horan, Grant, Cunningham, eds. Washington,D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1987.    Reinis, Stanislaw and Jerome M. Goldman. The Development of the Brain. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publishers, 1980.    Rockwell, P.E.,M.D. Director of Anesthesiology, Leonard Hospital, Troy, NY, U.S. Supreme Court, Markle vs. Abele, 72-56, 72-730, 1972. P.11       The Silent Scream. Cleveland, OH: American Portrait Films, 1984.    Tanner, J.M. and G.R. Taylor, Time-Life Books. Growth, New York: Life Science Life, 1965. p.64.    U.S. Congress. Subcommittee on Separation of Powers to Senate Judiciary Committee S-158, 97th Congress, 1st Session 1981. p.7

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Critical Appreciation of Poetry Essay

William Wordsworth had a variety of concerns which he expressed in â€Å"Composed Upon Westminster Bridge. † He was a metaphysical poet and the theme he writes about in this poem is nature and its relationship to man. He has used a variety of poetic methods which have all helped to shape and enhance the poem such as rhyming couplets, simile, and personification. The main concerns he highlights in this poem are the destructive nature of man, the relationship of man and nature, and the negative impact of industrialization on nature. Wordsworth made use of similes as one of his poetic methods. In line four of the poem he writes: â€Å"This city doth like a garment wear†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Here he compares the city to a garment as according to him figuratively the city wears the beauty of the morning. He uses this poetic method to highlight the extent to which the city exudes beauty in the early hours of the morning while all is silent and the industrial excesses of the day have not yet begun. Wordsworth in presenting the beauty and tranquility of the morning could be highlighting the negativity that pervades when morning leaves because of man’s intervention. This is all too likely as the area that Wordsworth probes in this poem is the relationship of man and nature and he clearly highlights the negative aspects of this relationship. Wordsworth also utilizes rhyming couplets, in particular end rhymes. This is demonstrated in the following lines of the poem : â€Å"This city now doth like a garment The Beauty of the morning;silent, bare† and also in : â€Å"Ships, towers,domes, theatres and temples lie open unto the fields, and to the sky;† This has quite an interesting effect as rhythm is described as a poem’s â€Å"sound system† and through the poet’s crafty manipulation of the rhymes he is able to give the poem a particular rhythm which enhances its style, value and meaning and draws attention to what it projects. It is portrayed almost like a song and helps to create visual images like a painting and Wordsworth can be likened to a painter in this way. This is Wordsworth’s literary skill at work and this contributes to the reader’s understanding of his status in literature as one of the better if not the best metaphysical poets known to man. Wordsworth also employs the use of personification. He says: â€Å"The river glideth at his own sweet will : Dear God! The very houses seem asleep;† The reader cannot help noticing the way in which this poet personifies the river and houses describing them as if they are alive and well and capable of exhibiting human capabilities , that of gliding gracefully and of sleeping as if tired. All of this combined with the poet’s extensive use of nature imagery help to bring the subject Wordsworth writes about to life as well increasing its significance. One of Wordsworth’s main concerns in Composed Upon Westminster Bridge† is the destructive nature of man. Wordsworth presents a vision of nature in the early hours of the morning when man has not yet begun to intervene. He presents its beauty and transcendent nature but he does not stop there. He opens with a line praising the beauty of nature: â€Å"Earth has not anything to show more fair:† but closes on a sad note: â€Å" And all that mighty is lying still! † His comment is that man’s nature is destructive and due to the effect of man on nature stillness and dullness has been the result. Smoke , dust and noise have become the grim characteristics of nature due to industrialization, and the only time a â€Å"smokeless air,† a beautiful atmosphere can be enjoyed is in the tranquility of the morning before industrialization continues. The negative impact of industrialization on nature is one of the poet’s concerns in the poem. In man’s lustful aggrandizing efforts to make progress through industrialization negative effects have been wrought on nature. There is the problem of noise and various types of pollution and this has been caused by industrialization. The picturesque beauty of nature Wordsworth describes can only be enjoyed in the morning. For the rest of the day smoke and noise predominates. This could be Wordsworth’s comment on the selfish and cruel nature of man in that through industrialization man chokes and suffocates nature in an attempt to suit his own ends. In Conclusion, the writer has a variety of concerns and poetic methods such as man’s destructive nature, simile and personification. All these concerns and poetic methods enhance the poem’s structure and meaning giving it its significance in the world of metaphysical poetry.

Working Paper

The term module means that the questionnaire can be used as part of a larger Research experience has shown that the answers to the 24 content questions are influenced by the nationality of the respondents. This is not to say that every respondent of nationality A gives one answer and everyone of a nationality B another, but one can expect systematic differences between the average answers from a sample with nationality A and a comparable sample from nationality B (in statistical terms, an analysis of variance on the answer scores shows a significant country effect).As the relationship is statistical, the samples per country should be of sufficient size. An ideal size for a homogeneous sample is 50 respondents. Sample sizes smaller than 20 should not be used, as outlying answers by single respondents will unduly affect the results. If samples are heterogeneous (composed of unequal sub-samples) these numbers apply to the sub-samples. Next to nationality, answers to the 24 content quest ions will also reflect other characteristics of the respondents, such as their gender, age, level of education, occupation, kind of work and the point in time when they answered the questions.Therefore comparisons of countries should be based on samples of respondents who re matched on all criteria other than nationality that could systematically affect the answers. The content questions attributed to a dimension were selected because in comparisons of matched samples from ten or more countries, the mean country scores on the four questions belonging to the same dimension usually vary together (if one is high, the other is high, or low if it is a reversely formulated question; if one is low, the other is low, etc. ). In statistical terms, the mean country scores are significantly correlated.The mean country scores on questions belonging to different emissions usually do not vary together (are uncorrelated). Therefore, the 24 questions form 6 clusters of 4 questions each. As mentione d above, the dimensions measured by the VS.. Are based on country- level correlations, between mean scores of country samples. For the same two questions, country-level correlations can be very different from individual-level correlations, between the answers by the individuals within the country samples (for a clear explanation see e. G. Klein, Danseuses & Hall, 1994).Individual-level correlations produce dimensions of personality; country-level correlations produce emissions of national culture. For research results about the relationship between personality and culture see Hefted & McCrae (2004). The study of national culture dimensions belongs to anthropology, the study of individual personality belongs to psychology. The first is to the second as studying forests is to studying trees. Forests cannot be described with the same dimensions as trees, nor can they be understood as bunches of trees.What should be added to the animals, organisms and climate factors, together described by the term epitome. In reverse, trees cannot be described with the same dimensions as forests. At best one can ask in what kind of forest this tree would be most likely found, and how well it would do there. A common misunderstanding about dimensions of national culture is that they are personality types. People want to score themselves on a dimension, or worse, try to score someone else. This is called stereotyping, which is not what the dimensions are for.They do not refer to individuals, but to national societies. What a person can do is find out how the values prevailing in his or her national society differ from those in another society. As an individual, a person can express how he or she feels about the values in a particular national society, but that would still be a function of his/her personality and not necessarily show his or her national culture. Because of this, the VS.. 2013 cannot be scored at the individual level. It is not a psychological test.The tendency to as k for individual scoring of the VS.. Is stronger in some national cultures than in others. Especially in very individualist cultures, the request for individual scoring is frequent: the concept of my society (a forest) is weaker that the concept of me myself (a tree). The VS.. Should only be used by researchers who subscribe to the concept of a society differing from other societies. The six dimensions on which the VS.. 2013 is based were found in research across more than 40 countries.In a research project across 20 different organizations within the same two countries, answers to the questions that made up the cross-national dimensions did not correlate in the same way (Hefted, Enquire, Omaha' & Sanders, 1990 and Hefted, Hefted & Moving, 2010: 341-368). So the cross-national dimensions do not apply to organizational (or corporate) cultures. The answers to the VS.. Questions (dealing with values and sentiments) varied less across organizations within a country than across countries .Instead, organizational cultures differed primarily on the basis of perceptions of practices, and the organizations in the study could be compared on six dimensions of perceived practices. While the study of national culture dimensions belongs to anthropology and the study of individual personality belongs to psychology, the study of organizational cultures belongs to sociology. The dimensions of perceived practices in the Hefted et al. 1990) study relate to known distinctions from organizational sociology. A similar concern prohibits the use of the VS.. Dimensions for comparing occupations (Hefted, Hefted & Moving, 2010: 368-369).In some cases, VS.. Dimension scores can be meaningfully computed and compared for the genders (female versus male) and for successive generations (grandparents country or across countries, but in this case we recommend extending the questionnaire with locally relevant items (Hefted, Garibaldi, Melville, Tenure & evokes, 2010). 4. VS.. 2013 scores are not comparable to published scores Some enthusiastic amateurs have used the VS.. With a sample of respondents from one country and tried to draw conclusions comparing the scores they found with those in Hypotheses books (1980, 1991 , 2001 , 2005, 2010).But essential to the use of the VS.. Is that comparisons should be based on matched samples of respondents: people similar on all criteria other than nationality that could systematically affect the answers. All scores in the first two Hefted books were based on carefully matched IBM subsidiary populations. A new sample, to be comparable to these, should be a attach for the original IBM populations on all relevant criteria. Such a match is virtually impossible to make, if only because the IBM studies were done around 1970 and the point in time of the survey is one of the matching characteristics.Hypotheses books since 2001 contain scores for a number of countries not in the original IBM set, based on extensions of the research outside MO M, or in a few cases on informed estimates. Extensions of the research to countries and regions not in the original set have to be based, like any VS.. Application, on matched samples across two or more countries. These should always include one or, if possible, more of the countries from the IBM set, so that the new data can be anchored to the existing framework. Anchoring' means that the scores from the extension research should be shifted by the difference of the old and new scores for the common country (or by the mean difference in the case of more common countries). The main problem of extension research is finding matched samples across new and old countries. Examples of successful extensions are described in Hefted (2001:464-465). The VS.. 2013 has been designed for research purposes. In the classroom it has poor ace validity, as it is based on the logic of national cultures which differs from the logic of individual students. Cultures are not king-size individuals: They are wholes, and their internal logic cannot be understood in the terms used for the personality dynamics of individuals. Echo-logic differs from individual logic† (Hefted, 2001 :17; the term ecological in cross-cultural studies is used for any analysis at the societal level; it does not only refer to the natural environment). To students or audiences without a professional training in anthropology or cross-cultural research the VS.. Is to the proper tool for explaining the essence of the dimensions.In this case trainers should rather develop teaching tools using the tables of differences between societies scoring high and low on each dimension, which are based on significant Hefted & Moving, 2010: Chapters 3-8). The twenty-four content questions allow index scores to be calculated on six dimensions of national value systems as components of national cultures: Power Distance (large vs†¦ Small), Individualism vs†¦ Collectivism, Masculinity vs†¦ Femininity, Uncertaint y Avoidance (strong vs†¦ Weak), Long- vs†¦ Short-Term Orientation, and Indulgence vs†¦ Restraint.All content questions are scored on five-point scales (1-2-3-4-5). Any standard statistical computer program will calculate mean scores on five-point scales, but the calculation can also be done simply by hand. For example, suppose a group of 57 respondents from Country C produces the following scores on question 04 (importance of security of employment): 10 x answer 24 x answer 2 14 x answer 3 5 x answer 4 1 x answer 5 42 20 54 valid answers totaling 125 Three of the 57 respondents gave an invalid answer: either blank (no answer) or multiple (more than one answer).Invalid answers should be excluded from the calculation (treated as missing). The mean score in our case is: 125/54 = 2. 31. Mean scores on five-point scales should preferably be presented in two decimals. More accuracy is unrealistic (survey data are imprecise measures). Power Distance Index (PDP) Power Distanc e is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a society expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. The index formula is PDP = 35(mom – mom) + 25(mom – mom) + QPS) in which mom is the mean score for question 02, etc.The index normally has a range of about 100 points between very small Power Distance and very large Power Distance countries. C(PDP) is a constant (positive or negative) that depends on the nature of the samples; it does not affect the comparison between countries. It can be chosen by the user to shift her/his PDP scores to values between O and 100. Individualism Index (DIVIDE) Individualism is the opposite of Collectivism. Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: a person is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family only.Collectivism stands for a roofs, which continue to protect them throughout their lifetime in exc hange for unquestioning loyalty. DIVIDE = 35(mom – mol) + 35(mom – mom) + C(ICC) in which mol is the mean score for question 01, etc. The index normally has a range of about 100 points between strongly collectivist and strongly individualist countries. C(ICC) is a constant (positive or negative) that depends on the nature of the samples; it does not affect the comparison between countries. It can be chosen by the user to shift his/her DIVIDE scores to values between O and 100.Masculinity Index (MASS) Masculinity is the opposite of Femininity. Masculinity stands for a society in which social gender roles are clearly distinct: men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life. Femininity stands for a society in which social gender roles overlap: both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life. MASS = 35(mom – mom ) + 35(mom – mom) + corn) in which mom is the mean score for question 05, etc.The index normally has a range of about 100 points between strongly feminine and strongly masculine countries. C(MFC) is a constant (positive or negative) that depends can be chosen by the user to shift her/his MASS scores to values between O and 100. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (AJAX) Uncertainty Avoidance is defined as the extent to which the members of institutions and organizations within a society feel threatened by uncertain, unknown, ambiguous, or unstructured situations. AU' = 4001118 – mom)+ 25(mom – mom) + qua) in which mom is the mean score for question 18, etc.The index normally has a range of about 100 points between weak Uncertainty Avoidance and strong Uncertainty Avoidance countries. C(AU) is a constant (positive r negative) that depends on the nature of the samples; it does not affect the comparison between countries. It can be chosen by the user to shift his/her I-JAG scores to values between O and 100. Long Term Orientation is the opposite of Short Term Orientation. Long Term Orientation stands for a society which fosters virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular adaptation, perseverance and thrift.Short Term orientation stands for a society which fosters virtues related to the past and present, in particular respect for tradition, preservation of â€Å"face†, and fulfilling social obligations. LTO = – mom) + 25(mom – mom) + C(IS) n which mom is the mean score for question 13, etc. The index normally has a range of about 100 points between very short term oriented and very long term oriented countries. C(l's) is a constant (positive or negative) that depends on the nature of the samples; it does not affect the comparison between countries. It can be chosen by the user to shift her/his L TO scores to values between O and 100.Indulgence versus Restraint Index (IVR) Indulgence stands for a society which allows rel atively free gratification of some desires and feelings, especially those that have to do with leisure, merrymaking with rinds, spending, consumption and sex. Its opposite pole, Restraint, stands for a society which controls such gratification, and where people feel less able to enjoy their lives. The index formula is IVR = – ml 1) + – mom) + COO in which ml is the mean score for question 11, etc. The index normally has a range of about 100 points between high indulgence and high restraint.C(IR) is a constant (positive or negative) that depends on the nature of the samples; it does not affect the comparison between countries. It can be chosen by the user to shift her/his IVR scores to values between O and 100. As country-level correlations differ from individual-level correlations, answers on questions used to measure a country-level dimension do not necessarily correlate across individuals. A reliability test like Cockroach's alpha should in this case not be based on individual scores but on country mean scores. Obviously this presupposes data from a sufficient number of countries, in practice at least ten.For comparison across fewer countries the reliability of the VS.. At the country level has to be taken for granted; it can indirectly be shown through the validity of the scores in predicting dependent variables. The IBM database (Hefted, 1980) allows to compute Cockroach alphas for the first four dimensions across 40 countries (39 for AAU, 33 for PDP because of missing data). Power Distance Index (3 items): Alpha = . 842 Individualism Index (6 items): Alpha = . 770 Masculinity Index (8 items): Alpha = . 760 Uncertainty Avoidance Index (3 items) Alpha = . 15 The rule of thumb for test reliability is a value over . 700. The new items in the new version were chosen because of their similarity to items in reliable other studies, but the reliability of the new dimension scores cannot be proven a prior'. The VS.. 2013 is copyrighted, but may be fre ely used for academic research projects. Consultants who want to use the VS.. 2013 periodically should pay a license fee based on the number of copies administered per year. The same holds for use by companies in employee surveys. Information on rates is available from the copyright holder ([email  protected] L) 9. History of the VS.. 2013 The original questions from the 1966-1973 Hermes (MOM) attitude survey questionnaires used for the international comparison of work-related values were listed in Hefted (1980, Appendix 1). Appendix 4 of the same book presented the iris Values Survey Module for future cross-cultural studies. It contained 27 content questions and 6 demographic questions. This VS.. 80 was a selection from the IBM questionnaires, with a few questions added from other sources about issues missing in the IBM list and Judged by the author to be of potential importance.In the 1984 abridged paperback edition of Hefted (1980) the original IBM questions were not included, but the VS.. 80 was. A weakness of the VS.. 80 was its dependence on the more or less accidental set of questions used in the IBM surveys. The IBM survey questionnaire had not really been imposed for the purpose of reflecting international differences in value patterns. However, the IBM questions could only be replaced by other questions after these had been validated across countries; and to be validated, they had to be used in a large number of countries first.Therefore in 1981 Hefted through the newly- founded Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation (IIRC) issued an experimental extended version of the VS.. (VS.. 81). On the basis of an analysis of its first results, a new version was issued in 1982, the VS.. 82. This was widely used for the next twelve years. 3 of the questions were needed to compute scores on the four dimensions identified by Hefted. The other questions were included for experimental use. Some questions in the VS.. 82 were only applicable to employe d respondents.Thus the instrument could not be used for entrepreneurs, students, and respondents without a paid Job. The number of replications using the VS.. 82 in Iris's files increased, but, unfortunately, it turned out that the samples from different researchers were insufficiently matched for producing a reliable new VS†¦ This changed when Michael Hope published his Ph. D. Hess on a survey study of elites (Syllabus Seminar Alumni) from 19 countries, using among other instruments the VS.. 82 (Hope, 1990). Eighteen of these countries were part of the IBM set, but besides USA all of them were from Europe.Hope's data base was therefore extended by adding results from replications in six countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America that could be considered somewhat matched with the Hope set. In the meantime, the research of Michael Harris Bond from Hong Kong, using the Chinese Value Survey (Chinese Culture Connection, 1987), had led to the identification f a fifth dimension: Lon g-Term versus Short-Term Orientation (Hefted & Bond, 1988; Hefted, 2001: Chapter 7). In the new version of the VS.. Published in 1994 (the VS.. 94), this dimension appeared for the first time together with the other four.The questionnaire was also adapted to respondents without a paid Job. Accumulated experience with the use of the VS.. 94 in the next 14 years led to the publication of an updated VS.. 08. In the meantime, many new sources of cross- cultural survey information became available. One was an unpublished Master's Thesis (Van Bug, 2006) reporting on the Internet administration of the VS.. 94 among active members of the student association EASIES in 41 countries, collecting some 2,200 valid answers, a response rate of 24%.We also looked for questions correlated with the IBM dimensions in the newly available sources, including the huge World Values Survey database freely accessible on Internet (Ingather and associates, 1998, 2004, 2007). In 2007, Michael Moving published a book integrating all available old and new databases, and we invited him to Join the VS.. Team. Moving (2007) proposed three new dimensions: Exclusion versus Universalism, Indulgence versus Restraint, and Monumentality versus Flexibility (flexibility plus nullity).From these, Exclusion versus Universalism across 41 countries was strongly correlated with Power Distance and Collectivism (both r = . 74), so we did not treat it as a new dimension. Indulgence versus Restraint was uncorrelated with any of the five dimensions in the VS.. 94 and it added new insights into national cultural differences, so we accepted it as a new and sixth dimension. Monumentality versus Flexibility was significantly correlated with Short Term Orientation (r = . 68 across 16 overlapping countries) and less strongly with Power

Friday, August 16, 2019

Maf 640

C)What would you do if you were Datin Timah? * Be innovative, go for incremental & radical innovations, be creative, think out of the box, invent, innovate, imitate. SHOW & TELL US WHAT YOU PLAN TO DO. If we were Datin Timah given the option whether to take up the Guardian’s offer or just sell off the business to the Watson, we will take up the Guardian’s offer rather than sell off to the Watson. This is due to the profit betterment. If we take up Watson’s offer, we can only get the short term profit and we cannot longer be in the industry.However, if we take up the Guardian’s offer, we can have the long term profit and we can sustain in the industry since the Guardian will help us in supplying our product to end customer. Furthermore, Guardian will not interfere in the management of Orang Kampung since their focused only to the product. Beside, they are willing to assist Orang Kampung in Research & Development and also production because they have the exp ertise. We can say that was the golden opportunity for the Orang Kampung to expand their market and target market.To sustain in the market, one product need to move together with the time, therefore, if before this Orang Kampung not concerned about how they package their product, now, they need to concerned since attractive packaging one of the important marketing strategy that able to catch up the customer and able to compete with other competitor’s product. Datin Timah is very conservative and holds to traditional way in making the product, so, she does not believe in revamping traditional medicine into modern pills and capsules, because according to her the purity of the traditional medicine will be contaminated with the toxic-chemicals.From our point of view, we believe that research and development team have a way how to maintain the traditional taste and benefit of the traditional medicine but still can modernized it so that it can compete with other modern medicine. Ho wever, if Datin Timah still doesn’t have faith with the team we suggest that she open an outlet in where she herself serves the product in traditional way where we believe that the traditional way is by boil the herbs and roots.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

The Neanderthal Man In Retrospect

We have always been fascinated by Darwin and his theories of evolution. With so many â€Å"schools of thought† of how the earth came into existence, it seemed impossible to narrow down our choices, analyze each theory, and prove everything that it postulates. It was a clear indication that the search for our ancestors, and the â€Å"missing link† will continue until an answer is sought. But, will we ever find out? For now, that remains to be seen. The Neanderthal man is believed to be one of the â€Å"missing links† in our ancestry. Like the Cro-Magnon man, Peking man, and Java man, this â€Å"species† became extinct 32,000 years ago. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the reader with the Neanderthal man and the possible theories that might have led to his extinction. The remains of the Neanderthal man, also known as Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis, was discovered in 1856 by workers quarrying for limestone in Neander Valley, Dusseldorf, Germany. These fossils were also found in other parts of Europe and Asia. They were considered a subspecies of humans because upon examination, they had features that are almost similar with humans, except for heavy brow ridges, a long low skull, and a robust skeleton (Foley, 2002). Neanderthals were shorter than the modern man, and as previously stated, had prominent brow ridges. Aside from that, they had low, sloping foreheads, a chinless and heavy, forward-jutting jaw, extremely large front teeth, wider shoulders and pelvis, more conical rib cage, and shorter forearms and lower legs (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2005). Some scientists, majority of which are paleoanthropoloists, claim that these were not a subspecies of humans because of their more â€Å"primitive† appearance. According to Stringer and Gamble (1993), the Neanderthals are a late form of Homo erectus or a descendant of that species. It was believed that the Neanderthals have been living in Europe 200,000 years before the Homo sapiens arrived (BBC News, 2007).In van der Dennen’s Book Review Essay on Neanderthal Man (2005), he stated that: This was the first evidence of a distinct (and now extinct) species or subspecies of human, Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis, that lived during the later part of the Pleistocene epoch, more familiarly known as the Ice Age, some 200,000 to 30,000 years ago. During 1917, Emil Bachler, in one of his excavations in the mountains of Switzerland, found no fossils of the Neanderthals (Van der Dennen, 2005). However, Mousterian tools and the remains of many cave bears were in abundance. Mousterian tools were most closely associated with Neanderthals. Bachler also felt that the bones and the tools were part of a ritual, and believed that the Neanderthals practice some sort of   â€Å"bear cult† (Van der Dennen, 2005). This led to the notion that the Neanderthals, like humans, had some form of communication and â€Å"culture†. When the fossil of this subspecies was studied by world-renowned pathologist and anatomist, Rudolf Virchow, he found out that the remains had evidence of rickets and osteoporosis, and he attributed this to the ape-like appearance of Neanderthals. Rickets and Osteoporosis is a manifestation of Vitamin D deficiency. Francis Ivanhoe (1970) in his paper supported Virchow’s   statement and postulated that the disease causes skeletal deformities and enlargement of the liver and spleen (Thompson, 2002). This maybe true because in the Pleistocene epoch, more commonly referred to as the â€Å"IceAge†, sunlight was a rarity. Vitamin D, in itself is stored in an inactive form and in order for it to be utilized by the body, it needs to be converted to its active form by UV rays (good source, sunlight). Therefore, it is not surprising that a number of fossils recovered during this era had evidence of bone deformities. However, Trinkaus and Shipman (1992), claimed that Neanderthal features are not caused by these bone diseases and argued that the bones of the 1st Neanderthal, were about 50% thicker than the average modern man. Klein (1989), supported this idea by comparing the long bones of Neanderthals and those of rickets’ victims. He claimed that both of their long bones are more curved than normal but rickets causes a sideways curvature of the femur, while Neanderthal femurs curve backwards. If Neanderthals are more human than ape, then it should follow that these subspecies should have survived today. Surprisingly, this is not the case. One of the earliest theories of the extinction believe that the â€Å"Ice Age† era, with its harsh climate, could have killed the Neanderthals. It points out that during this period, it was not only the climate that affected them, but the scarcity of resources were a factor as well. However, Professor Katerina Harvati, a palaeoanthroplogist from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Germany, said: â€Å"The more controversial date of circa 24,000 years ago, places the last Neanderthals just before a major climate shift that would have been characterised by a large expansion of ice sheets and the onset of cold conditions in northern Europe† (Morrelle, 2007). Another theory is is the â€Å"candelabra model† or â€Å"multiregional evolution† theory. According to Trinkaus and Shipman (1992): â€Å"Though the evidence in different regions of the Old World records genuinely different events, nowhere is there evidence for violent confrontations between Neandertals and modern humans (myths notwithstanding). The mosaic of local evolution, migration, admixture, absorption, or local extinction of Neandertals was a complex process that occurred over the last 10,000 years† (p.416). But, Tattersall (2005), in his book, had another theory. He is convinced that the extinction of Homo neanderthalensis was brought about by the arrival of the more intelligent and   more adaptable Homo sapiens, and that the latter killed the race of the former. On his book he wrote: â€Å"It is vanishingly unlikely, however, that peaceful assimilation was an overall option, with groups of the two kinds of humans [the resident Homo neanderthalensis and the invading Homo sapiens or Cro-Magnons] exchanging members when they met and going their separate ways, or joining forces. More likely, perhaps, if intermixing is to be considered at all, is a scenario of well-equipped and cunning Homo sapiens descending on Neanderthal groups, killing the males – through strategy and guile, certainly not through strength – and abducting the females†(p. 202). However, there was no evidence of large scale killings (Richards, 1987), and the theory of â€Å"Biological displacement† was proposed. It states that the Neanderthals and modern man (Cro-Magnons), coexisted and lived side by side. But, due to the fact that humans are much more intelligent than these subspecies, they might have indirectly led to the extinction of Neanderthals by driving them away from their territories. These led to occasional violence between the groups, but, as expected the humans won, driving them to places with insufficient resources for sustenance. Ironicallly, the very species that are studying these Neanderthals are the cause of their extinction. Works Cited â€Å"Neanderthal Man.† Columbia Encyclopedia 6th edition. 2005. Foley, Jim. â€Å"Creationist Arguments: Neandertals† 31 October 2002. Talkorigins. 14 September 2007 http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/a_neands.html Ivanhoe, Francis. â€Å"Was Virchow Right About Neanderthal?† 1970. Nature, 227:577-579 Klein, Richard. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. 1989. Morrelle, Rebecca. â€Å"Neanderthal Climate Link Debated†. 13 September 2007 BBC News. 15 September 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6992721.stm Richards, G. Human Evolution: An Introduction for the Behavioural Sciences. 1987. Stringer, Andrew and Clive Gamble. In Search of Neanderthals. 1993. Tattersall, Ian. The Last Neanderthal: The Rise, Success, and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closest Human Relatives. 2005. Thompson, Bert. â€Å"Neanderthal Man – Another Look.† May 2002. Apologetics Press. 15 September 2007 http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/491 Trinkaus, E., and P. Shipman. The Neanderthals: Changing the Images of   Mankind. 1992. Van der Dennen, Johan. â€Å"The Continuing Essay of Neanderthal Man: Book Essay.† 2005. Rechten University of Goningen. 15 September 2007 http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/NEANDER/NEANDER.pdf â€Å"The Day We Learned To Think – Programme Summary.† 20 February 2007. BBC News. 14 September 2007 http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2003/learnthink.shtml   

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas Compare and Contrast

Night and Boy in the Striped Pajamas Comparison Night by Elie Wiesel and the movie The Boy in the Striped Pajamas show two extremely interesting perspectives towards the Holocaust. Night was a non-fiction novel written by a Jewish boy who was in an actual concentration camp. The Boy in the Striped Pajamas was a movie based off of a fiction novel written by John Boyne that tells the story of a Nazi soldier’s son named Bruno that befriends a Jewish boy he meets at a nearby concentration camp.Within the two stories, there were differences in perspective, mood, and overall message. Because Elie and Bruno come from very different origins, their perspective in the stories are very different. Being taken out of his home and put through the terrors of a concentration camp, Elie and the other Jews involved saw Nazis as extremely horrid people. The Nazi soldiers were the antagonists in Night. However, in The Boy in the Striped Pajamas, Bruno and the rest of his family were Germans, even his father was a Nazi soldier.Bruno and his family throughout most of the story had no idea what the Nazis were doing to the Jews; they saw the Nazis as people helping their country. Not until the end of the movie did the family realize the terrible things the Nazis were doing to the Jews. Movies provide things like mood and tone that words in a book just can’t provide. In Night, Elie attempts to present his voice through his writing. But, when you don’t have the senses of sight and sound, it is difficult to understand the mood the writer is trying to portray.In the Boy in the Striped Pajamas, through the cinematography, music, and tone of the actors’ voices, you can easily distinct what the mood was. I believe that Night and The Boy in the Striped Pajamas each had their own message to share, and their messages had both similarities and differences. Elie Wiesel wrote the book to tell people about the terrifying and horrific events that took place in his life an d to try to prevent anything like the Holocaust from happening again.The Boy in the Striped Pajamas showed the importance of friendship and it provided a perspective that many people hadn’t thought about before. Viewers were exposed to what many Germans went through in finding out what happened to the Jews. Night and The Boy in the Striped Pajamas show two extremely interesting perspectives towards the Holocaust when it came to perspective, mood, and final message. Even though they have their differences, they still provided a story that teach people about the tragedy that happened during the Holocaust and humbles those people.