Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Restructuring the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC): Philippine Prospects for Regional Collective Defense and Stronger Military Relations Essay

sparing development through greater neighborhoodal cooperation was the primary aim of the joining of south-centraleast Asian Nations (ASEAN) when it was formed on sublime 8, 1967 by the groundwork countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.Although one of the motivations at that time of forming the association was the common vexation of communist expansion (especially in Vietnam) and insurgency within their respective borders, the ASEAN has not ventured into creating a war machine compact to farm regional peace and stableness. Hence, the ASEAN is orbly recognized as an economic musical arrangement with no soldiers obligations tying member nations.But with the recent rise of certificate tensions, in the beginning caused by the aggressive actions taken by mainland China against the Philippines and co-claimant ASEAN nations everywhere territories fit(p) at the southeastern China sea the prospect of creating an ASEAN war machine alignm ent to solve the Chinese security problem, has become very tempting.The researcher believes that indeed, loyaler military relations in the midst of ASEAN nations volition not only champion address the security threat posed by China solely as well instigate in resolving the territorial disputes between co-member nations.Thus, this theme proposes a restructuring of the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) such that it bequeath allow the establishment and earthly c one timern of the following (1) A regional military alliance that get out promote incarnate denial (2) the ASEAN peacekeeping force and (3) the ASEAN Security Council. The paper as well as examines the imperative purpose of the United States and Japan in the resolution of the security issues in the region the feasibility of the marriage intent in the context of the location quo, and the possible problems that will face the military alliance once it is forged.1. innovationDuring the 1970s until the 1990s, security issues began assailing the stability of the southwestwardeast Asian (SEA) region as territorial disputes erupted between fellow ASEAN nations and China. The said disputes were mainly about the inconsistency on maritime boundaries and territorial claims made on islands on the South China Sea (or the West Philippine Sea). The situation did not mend upon entering the 21st century as the encroachs seemed to worsen. In 2005, Chinese ships allegedly fired upon two Vietnamese fishing boats from Thanh Hoa province which killed 9 people.1If on that point was something common with all the incidents of skirmishes and standoffs in the much contested area since the 1980s, it was the invariant involvement of the Chinese navy. China was dubbed as the rising bully of the South China Sea. With a formidable military strength and an aggressive irrelevant policy in dealings with territorial disputes, China was becoming a great security menace to not only the Philippines and th e SEA region but to the rest of the world.The stability of the SEA region is a prevailing concern of Philippine national security, one of the three pillars of Philippine outside(prenominal) policy.2 Moreover, Philippine defence mechanism officials and security experts view Chinese expansionist aspirations in the South China Sea as the main longterm security threat to the Philippines.3 The renewed tensions between the Philippines and China last April 8, 2012 at the Scarborough Shoal has led to speculations of a Philippine-China war and its consequences to the Philippine-US mutual defense treaty. supranational relations experts though, doubt the commitment of the US to come in the Philippines defense once it is attacked by China as it has not confirmed whether the ground of the treaty covers contested territories in the South China Sea.41Chinese ships shot to kill Vietnamese fishermen survivor. Vietnam Seaports Association. 17 January 2005. Philippine external Policy. The O fficial Website of the Republic of the Philippines discussion section of Foreign Affairs. 11 August 2009.3Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, p. 334Stirring up the South China Sea (II) Regional Responses. Inernational Crisis Group. 24 July 2012. 2With that in mind, it is unornamented then that relying on the US for military assistance in the government issue of a Chinese attack is useless. What the Philippines need is a military alliance of committed nations who have more than or less the same venture in the South China Sea territorial dispute. That being said, the intimately transparent choice would be creating an alliance with our fellow ASEAN claimant nations.2. REGIONAL incarnate DEFENSE ATTEMPT AND FAILUREThe idea of creating an international organization for corporal defense in the SEA region to offset exploitation Chinese fix is not new to international politics. In fact it was once tried with the signing of the southeastern Asia Collective Defense Tre aty or Manila Pact, in Manila, Philippines which created the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).The organization was then formally established on February 19, 1955 at a conflict of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand.5 One of the rationales for the creation of SEATO was to counteract communist influence in southeast Asia, especially that of Communist China, through an anti-communist joint defense alliance.6The organization though is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military. Also, SEATO was inefficient in promoting regional stability (failing to pr final result the escalation of the Vietnam War) as only two SEA nations joined the organization, videlicet the Philippines and Thailand. Majority of the members were located outside the region.After a final set on 20 February 1976, SEATO was formally dissolved on June 30, 1977.73. RESTRUCTURING THE ASEAN POLITICAL-SECURITY COMMUNITY (APSC) condition Phil ippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, in reaction to the growing threat of act of terrorism in the region, called for a collective security arranging within the ASEAN in 2004.8 But5Leifer 2005Franklin 2006, p. 17Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) 2000, p. 606under the original ASEAN hold, a multilateral approach on military and security issues is disallowed. Furthermore, the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) in its blueprint has vowed to rely exclusively on peaceful processes in resolving intra-regional and extra-regional differences.Since the status quo hinders any step towards regional collective defense, a major overhaul would be required for the proposal to push through.9 This paper proposes a revision on the original ASEAN charter in a way that will allow the transformation of the APSC into an classic military body.Such transition will be facilitated by the creation of the ASEAN Security Council which will serve as the overseeing organ of the APSC and will assist& nbspin the forging of a collective defense alliance and a peacekeeping force under the ASEAN. The fundamental concept of each proposal is discussed briefly below. 3.1 ASEAN Security CouncilThe proposed body will serve as the highest important body of the APSC and will be composed by the member assures of the ASEAN and equal by a delegate from each nation. Its tasks will embroil (but will not be limited to) supervision, policy formulation and implementation, and decision-making regarding regional security issues under the APSC. 3.2 ASEAN Collective Defense AllianceThe forging of this alliance must(prenominal) be legitimized under the ASEAN charter through the necessary amendments and should not in any way violate existing international laws. Under the proposed framework, all ASEAN nations must pledge to defend each other in the tear downt of an extra-regional attack. In dealing with intra-regional disputes though, collective defense cannot be invoked. Any incidence of intra-r egional conflicts will be subject to investigation of the ASEAN Security Council and will be decided on accordingly.89ASEAN and collective security system. The Jakarta Post. 7 December 2004 See The ASEAN Charter, pp. 23-28 and ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint, pp. 8-143.3 ASEAN Peacekeeping effectivenessDuring times of regional unrest caused by military conflict between member nations, the formation of a peacekeeping force maybe tell by the ASEAN Security Council. The peacekeeping force will be composed of military personnel contributed by the non-involved states and will serve a item term or until the conflict is resolved.Duties of the ASEAN peacekeeping force will include protecting civilians, assisting in post-war disarmament, escorting of important diplomats and peace negotiators, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants.4. POLITICAL-SECURITY have-to doe with ANALYSISThe evocations of an ASEAN military pact will have a strong bearing on Chinas fu ture foreign policy. perchance a positive effect (if the recommendation is pursued) will be the taming worst of the aggressiveness of China in dealing with the South China Sea issue. With a population of over 600 million people, a steady and growing economy, and tightening diplomatic relations with the U.S. and Japan the military potential of the ASEAN cannot be simply overlooked.Both the U.S. and Japan, with their political and economic stakes in southeasterly Asia and shared apprehension of the growing Chinese power, are likely to check a militarily united ASEAN to secure their interests in the region. Furthermore, a militarily integrated ASEAN eases the burden of the U.S. in accepting the role of regional hackamore and provides both countries with a strong political leverage in dealing with Chinese expansionism in the South China Sea.That being said, it is only logical to count on both technical and moral take for from the two extraregional powers should the ASEAN decide t o pursue the endeavor. Another possible positive outcome will be the proficient resolution of intra-regional conflicts. Under the proposed APSC framework, existing and future intra-regional disputes will be settled through the ASEAN Security Council instead of state-to-state negotiations. A collective defense alliance to a fault serves as deterrence to any survey of aggression towards a comember and strengthens solidarity through a common sense of military identity.But other considerations like the reactions of Chinese allies or even those of neutral observers to the region will also matter. A negative feedback by the international community can have a bad implication to the future of the proposed collective defense organization. Chinas reaction itself is also an important consideration. Although it is more likely that China will become more restrained in dealing with a militarily united ASEAN in the South China Sea, one cannot absolutely ascertain such outcome. An reverse gear co urse of what is expected, however unlikely, is still possible.Another point to ponder upon is the role the Philippines will play in the pursuance of an ASEAN military pact. Do we play the regional leader role and take on the initiative? Or become a regional-subsystem collaborator and let another ASEAN nation latch on the central role? Whatever it may be, it is a necessity for the Philippines to nag an active role if it is to protect its interest in the matter.5. CONLUSIONEstablishing a collective defense system within the ASEAN will not be an indulgent job. There will be many obstacles towards the path socio-cultural divisions, lingering tensions over unresolved territorial feuds, and differing levels of threat perceptions dims the prospects of turning the organization into a formal military pact.10 But as highlighted earlier, the pressing need of military cooperation in the light of the Chinese threat can override the said obstacles.The provide of extra-regional powers like Jap an and the US will be vital to the achiever of the proposal. The U.S. who is trying to preserve its hegemony and Japan who is currently involved in a territorial dispute with China over the Senkaku islands, will likely support the advancement of the ASEAN into a collective defense organization considering the political expediency they will be able to reap from it. global feedback will also play a significant role in the success or failure of proposal. The approval (or disapproval) of the international community will greatly impress the progress and future of an ASEAN collective defense system. But what matters most is the 10Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, pp. 45-47reaction of China and its allies. A strong negative response from the aforementioned can easily plunge the region into a state of cold war a possible outcome that is extremely antonym to the aims of the proposal.(Word count 1679)BilbliographyBooksFranklin, John K. (2006). The Hollow Pact Pacific Security and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-542-91563-5.Leifer, Michael (2005). Chin Kin Wah, Leo Suryadinata. ed. Michael Leifer Selected Works on Southeast Asia. ISBN 978-981-230-270-0.Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A. & Neu, C. R. (2001) The Role of Southeast Asia in U.S. Strategy Toward China. ISBN/EAN 0-8330-2893-6.EncylopediasEncyclopaedia Britannica (India) (2000). Students Britannica India, playscript Five. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.JournalsHolsti, K. J. (1970). National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp. 233-309WebsitesInernational Crisis Group (July 24, 2012). Stirring up the South China Sea(II) Regional Responses. Retrieved February 16, 2013, fromhttp//www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/north-east-asia/china/229-stirring-up-thesouth-china-sea-ii-regional-responses.aspxThe Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. Philip pine Foreign Policy. 11 August 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http//www.dfa.gov.ph/index.php/about-the-dfa/philippine-foreign-policy

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